Absolutism and Constitutionalism
1. Why did tyrants in the past 16th/future 17th centuries want upstart sources of proceeds? Why did tyrants eagerness to attain their proceeds extinguishedside the compliance of the dignity? 2.
Explain the role that each of the succeedingcitedcited played in the deficiency of England achieving absolutism, as well-mannered-mannered as the ovation of the French: England France · Holiness – Holiness · Synod/Tradition – Estates General · Bisecticularities of Leaders – Bisecticularities of Leaders · Trust of Dignity – Trust of dignity 3. Henry IV came to the thrundivided and accelerationed to object the French Antagonisms of Holiness.
Aftercited aggravate 30 years of accommodating antagonism, France was a rubbish politically and economically. To cemal the rank ce absolutism, he and his finance contribute, the duke of Sully, wanted to invigorate normal airs of the community and paralyze others. Explain where the succeedingcitedcited bare into their plans, using the conditions in parendisquisition in your answer: · agency of dignity (parlements) · acceptiond specie ce conclude (monopolies) · acceptiond turn ce economic ovation (canals, corvee) 4. Succeedingcited Henry IV’s assassination, his 9 year crave-standing son Louis XIII became czar.
Too adolescent to administration, his woinvention determined a lustrous professional to answer as his regent. Explain how the succeedingcitedcited policies demonstration the structure of Richelieu’s “raison d’etat”: · Amendion of intendants · Impressions in the 30 Years Antagonism (1618-1648) · Treatment of excellents · Treatment of Huguenots 5. Describe the realityors that led to the mutiny (collective as the Fronde) of the French dignity opposing the adolescent Louis XIV and Cardinal Mazarin (1649-1652). What homily did the Fronde imdivorce Louis XIV? How did it acceleration adapt the French populace ce absolutist administration?
Helpful Hints ce Lection this Section: o The earliest divorce of this lection provides an aggravateview of the brace systems of council that exposed, and offers you hints as to why they exposed as they did. Read this carefully so that sundry of the details registered in cethcoming sections conciliate average further to you. o There is a huge discord betwixt the English Synod and the French parlements (voicelessness discord in spellings). The Synod (-ia) historically had the cece to approve whether ratees were equitable (fair) or referable, and so the czars/queens normally had to go precedently Synod whenever they wanted specie.
Parliament, located in London, had the cece to cem statutes. French parlements (-e) were contrariant in that there were sundry regional parlements as irrelative to undivided mediate undivided, and they lacked the cece to cem statutes. Rather, the French parlements equitable had the instance to recognize or offal policies projected by the dominion. The French besides had the Estates General to answer as its legislature, stationary it was a medieval figment that never truly caught on unformed the French excellents. It could simply enopposed when it was determined into compimpress by the czar, and that was very excellent (spirit uninterruptedly betwixt 1618 and 1788).
Chapter 13 – England 1. The Policy of Extinguishedwition refers to the unanalogous English czars’ objecteavors to go encircling, or extinguishedwit, Synod in their bunch of specie ce the conclude. Explain how each of the succeedingcitedcited was an objecteavor to elevate or secure specie, and why it angered excellents/members of Synod: · impositions- These attached inventionner duties were seen as rateation on imports and ship-produces by Synod and as requiring synodary acquiesce. They angered excellents and members of Synod consequently they viewed it as rateation extinguishedside acquiesce. selling titles of dignity (ponder contribute and demand– why would excellents affect approve they each had hither agency if there were further excellents in the community? )- populace did anything they could to attain a better posture so of method they would suborn titles of dignity and gundivided there were sundry excellents now, anterior excellents felt hither agency consequently there weren’t as sundry “important” titles ce wholeone. · James I’s role as peacemaker- 2. Summarize the sundry sacred complaints that were elevated opposing Czar James I. In pating the episcopacy, what did James average when he retorted “No bishops, no czar (pg. 452). – James viewed the proposition to restore bishops with presbyteries as an strive to subside his agency in the temple so he quoted that. 3. What impressions led Synod cece Charles I to recognize the Petition of Right? How would Charles I bear striveed to defobject himself and his impressions? What freedoms did the Petition pledge? -disputes betwixt Synod and Czar Charles I aggravate the deterrent of the Thirty Years’ Antagonism, Synod offald to transfer subsidies to assistance the antagonism objecteavor, inherent to Charles bunch “distressing loans” extinguishedside Synodary eulogy and arbitrarily imprisoning those who offald to rapid.
The Petition pledged restrictions on non-Parliamentary rateation, ceced billeting of legion, restraint extinguishedside account, and restricts the amendion of soldierly statute. 4. Why did Synod referable enopposed betwixt 1629 and 1640? Describe the predicament that required their encountering in 1640. – The Triennial Impress was purposed to neutralize czars from regulating extinguishedside Synod, as Charles had dundivided betwixt 1629-1640. The impress required that Synod enopposed ce at smallest a fifty-day compimpress uninterruptedly whole three years. 5. Restraintm a timeline using the succeedingcitedcited conditions, explaining what each is and how the conditions repast to undivided-another. · Short Synod Scottish Invasion · Crave Synod’s Upstart Statutes (1640-41) · Gorgeous Remonstrance · Invasion of Synod (Roundhead/Cavaliers) 1639-1640 – Scottish Invasion= Splitdhold of Charles’s council of Scotland and brace strives to fix his conciliate by cece. Scots rose in 1639 opposing Charles’ initiative of the English Prayer Book into Scotland, the anti-royaregister London merchants encouraged the invading Scots to seize Upstartcastle. This they did in 1640, wholly disrupting the ship-produce of coal. The Scottish host remained in Upstartcastle ce a year and teeming the Corporation a normal fee ce billeting its soldiers. 640 – Short Synod= sat from 13 April to 5 May 1640 during the govern of Czar Charles 1 of England and determined “short” consequently it simply latested 3 weeks. He was ceced to fawn the Short Synod chiefly to get specie to finance his soldierly labor with Scotland in the Bishops’ Antagonism. -Crave Synod= normal to ignoring financial bills. It common its indicate from the fimpress that through an Impress of Synod, it could be dissolved simply with the compact of the members and those members did referable acquiesce to its divorce until succeedingcited the English Accommodating Antagonism and at the object of interregnum in 1660. 641 -Gorgeous Remonstrance= a register of grievances presented to Czar Charles I by English Synod on 1 December 1641, stationary ignoringed by the Hocorrection of Commons on the 22nd of November 1641, during the Crave Synod; it was undivided of the chief events which were to precipitate the English Accommodating Antagonism. 1642-1651 -Invasion of Synod (Roundhead/Cavaliers)= was a course of defended fights and political machinations betwixt Synodarians (Roundheads) and Splendidists (Cavaliers).
The earliest (1642–46) and promote (1648–49) accommodating antagonisms pitted the assistanceers of Czar Charles I opposing the assistanceers of the Crave Synod, while the third antagonism (1649–51) proverb antagonist betwixt assistanceers of Czar Charles II and assistanceers of the Rump Synod. The Accommodating Antagonism objected with the Synodary ovation at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. 6. Explain how the “Rump Synod” and, further suitably, Oliver Cromwell, administrationd England during the date betwixt Charles I and Charles II. – administrationd earliest England, and then Ireland and Scotland from 1649 to 1660.
Aftercited the English Accommodating Antagonism and the deterrent of Charles I, the republic’s entity was initially approved by “An Impress declaring England to be a Commonwealth” adopted by the Rump Synod, on 19 May 1649. The council took the cem of trodden bisecticular administration by Oliver Cromwell. Equitable precedently and succeedingcited the deterrent of Czar Charles I on 30 January 1649, the Rump ignoringed a enumerate of impresss of Synod creating the entireowable account ce the republic. Accelerationful Hints ce Lection this Section: o To acceleration bear-in-mind the enjoin of the English tyrants, seek to bear-in-mind the “Cromwell-mannered Sandwich. As with any amiable sandwich, it is determined succeedingcited the fruit, which goes in the average. Surrounding the fruit is usually CHeese. In the Cromwell-mannered Sandwich then, the buns similar James (James I on crisis, or earliest, and James II ground, or latest) and the CHeese similars CHarles (Charles I on crisis of the fruit or earliest, and then Charles II underneathneathneath the fruit or promote). Thus the enjoin goes Bun (James I), Cheese (Charles I), Fruit (Oliver Cromwell), Cheese (Charles II), and Bun (James II). I don’t distinguish, it accelerations me. : ) 1. Describe England underneathneathneath the Restoration of the Dominion (what agencys did Czar bear?
Religion? )- began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish tyranties were entire vertical underneathneathneath Charles II. 2. Holiness and the dominion became an increasingly incensed question in Restoration-era England. Discuss how the succeedingcitedcited impresss/events expose the fight developing betwixt tyrant and Synod: · Clarendon Code= The Clarendon Code was a course of foul-mouthed entireowable statutes ignoringed betwixt 1661-1665 which effectively re-normal the lordship of the Anglican Temple succeedingcited the interlude of Cromwell’s Commonwealth, and objected enlightenment ce dissenting intellectual. Declaration of Indulgence= Charles II of England’s strive to extobject sacred immunity to Protestant nonconformists and Roinvention Catholics in his realms, by suspending the deterrent of the punitive statutes that punished recusants from the Temple of England. Charles issued the Declaration on 15 March 1672. · Experiment Impress (voicelessness who this undivided was aimed at)= were a course of English punitive statutes that answerd as a sacred experiment ce collective function and fixd unanalogous accommodating disabilities on Roinvention Catholics and Nonconformists.
The origin was that nundivided stationary community professing the Normal Temple were chooseable ce collective avocation, and the keen punitiveties pronounced opposing recusants, whether Catholic or Nonconformist, were affirmations of this origin. In performance nonconformists were repeatedly exempted from some of these statutes through the normal ignoringage of Impresss of Indemnity 3. Twain politics and holiness played a bulky role in the ceced resistance of James II as Czar of England. Summarize the role of each, and voicelessness what answerd as the direct account of the Glorious Revolution. . Describe the political philosophy of John Locke institute in his Brace Treatises on Council. 5. How could undivided purpose to the Glorious Revolution and the English Bill of Rights as future ovationes ce the event of Democracy? Accelerationful Hints ce Lection this Section: o When seetyrant to celebrate direct Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, ponder abextinguished what they trans-parent ce in respects to invention’s “natural bisecticularize. ” Hobbes, who believed invention was terrific, alarming, abandoned odious and inexorable, was a “Hater. ” Thus, the earliest referable attributable attributablee of his indicate and how he felt twain pair up (Hobbes; Hater).
Locke, who said invention was naturally amiable, was entire abextinguished the Love. Thus, his indicate and beliefs are besides conjoined by a earliest-note origin (Locke; Love). Chapter 13 – France 1. Explain how the speculation of Divine Right invigorateed Louis XIV’s agency as czar. How did his aphorism “L’etat, c’est moi” think the impartings of Bishop Bossuet? – The Divine Right invigorateed Louis XIV’s by aphorism that dictators, excellents, and synod don’t bear agency aggravate the populace. “L’etat, c’est moi” averages “I am bisecticularize” thinked the imparting of Bishop Bossuet by aphorism God has the almighty agency. 2.
The Palace at Versailles is an sound divorce of Louis XIV’s secure govern. Answer the succeedingcitedcited with revere to spirit in Versailles: · To “domesticate” something averages to cem it reclaimed, or to course it to be amendionful to humans. In what ways did Louis XIV “domesticate the dignity? ” · Why did Louis XIV enjoin excellents to ensue such verificationcdestroy collective administrations and mature collective functions at Versailles? Louis enjoined excellents to ensue verificationcdestroy collective administrations and mature collective functions at Versailles consequently he wanted them to bear hither agency, so they won’t be a browbeating to him. What types of populace did Louis elect to crisis his council agencies? Why did he choose to amendion them instead of the excellents, as was the predicament in other times and other countries? Louis XIV vertical the princes who had anteriorly held postures as contributes with upstart aristocrats who feared him further. This gave Louis XIV, the Czar of France further agency. 3. Explain the ways in which Jean-Baptiste Colbert made France’s administration higher to any other communitys’ in the 17th century. How did the marquis of Louvois dramatically acception the competency of France’s soldierly? 4.
Louis XIV’s France became so agencyful that no undivided community could approvely depend up and overthrow the French. Ce that discuss, Louis chose to confound himself in a course of antagonisms that would stationary split his community’s finances. Include each of Louis XIV’s antagonism in a timeline that demonstrations the succeedingcitedcited: · Years fought · Discusss ce Antagonism · How ceeign communitys worked to Balance extinguished French agency · Extinguishedcomes of Antagonism 5. Why did Louis XIV affect it was compulsory to annul the Edict of Nantes? What impimpress did this affect bear on his community? Huguenots as a browbeating to his agency.
Huguenots through his govern were antagonistic to the conclude and instituted mutinys. The rescission of the Edict of Nantes accountd bulky enumerates of them to decamp to other protestant countries and institute themselves there, paralyzeing the French administration. 6. Explain why the Antagonism of Spanish Ovationion (and the later Treaty of Utrecht) cems a discussable culmicommunity to a. the gorgeous eagernesses of Louis XIV’s plans ce domicommunity of Europe, and; b. the origin of Balance of Agency amendiond to scrisis Louis XIV and include French agency 7. Consider Louis XIV’s Grant. Restraintm a register of real and denying airs of Louis XIV’s grant.
Then, restraintm a disquisition bisecticularizement that evaluates the impimpress of Louis XIV on French event. Be abiding your disquisition 1) takes a side/has troddenion, and 2) does referable simply register 3 things Louis did amiable and/or unwell. o Intendants were council professionals (splendid accommodating servants,’ according to the extract) in inculpate of aggravatesight duties opposing entire areas of French fellowship. They were lawful ce maczar abiding that entire rate specie self-possessed by regional rate professionals went troddenly to the czar (as irrelative to some going to the collector’s crib), and to aggravatesee the courseing and order of the French soldierly.
They premeditated willingness in origination and carried their homilys to emerging French industries. Possibly the most main air of the intendants was the fimpress that they were referable of secure excellent family. Richelieu and Louis XIV realized that using excellents to do the most main jobs of council ran opposed to the fancy of mediateizing liberal agency in the hands of the conclude. Ce that discuss, the intendants typically came from average systematize backgrounds, populace who did referable occupy bulky possessions of their hold. Thus, these populaces’ ovation in spirit was liberaly-dependent upon the czar.
If they became contaminated, another intendant would fawn them extinguished and they would destroy their job and what was approvely their simply accident to be very ovationful in spirit. This restraintmd an incredibly driven, docile and constant bureaucracy ce the French czars. o During the Opposed-Reformation, distinct contrariant assemblages of Catholics came up with unanalogous ways they proverb as amend in respects to Catholicism. The Jesuits were approvely the most illustrious and most ovationful, as they traveled to whole coastline and cemal up schools and monasteries in most entire eminent communitys.
Undivided of the Jesuits’ guide messages to populace was, “we can acceleration secure you. ” By this, the Jesuits promoted the fimpress that populace who were Catholic could be pledged preservation, so crave as they ensueed the 7 sacraments and did as their deacon tlong-standing them. Another assemblage, the Jansenists, proverb this as deceptive. Much approve Luther and Calvin, the Jansenists believed that there was referablehing populace could do on sphere to pledge their preservation. They stationary believed in succeedingcitedcited entire 7 of the Sacraments and other areas of Catholic article, stationary they said that attainting into world had to be a “gift” of God’s mercy.
A huge sacred controvert broke extinguished amid the Catholic temple, and the restraintcible Jesuits led an extinguished-cry of opposture opposing the Jansenists. The purpose the extract is seetyrant to cem with the Jansenists is that their assemblage offered a cem of Catholicism that included airs of sundry Protestant intellectual (role of credulity/mercy as endowment ce preservation etc. ), which theoretically could bear kept French Huguenots (French Protestants) amid the Catholic credulity and kept them amid France. When Louis XIV extinguishedlawed Jansenists, he made entireowable simply the securely anti-Protestant Jesuit Catholics, who began intrusive ce secure statutes opposing Protestants.