Engineering Education in Ghana
Education subserves as an engine control economic growing through the accretion of anthropological excellent. Education is strongly associated with boosting rates of societal excellent ( Campbell, 2006 ) . the impress or progress of leaving or geting open cognition, educeing the controlces of past and judgement, and by and capacious of fixing singleself or others intellectually control educeed eaver ( Dictionary.com, 2014 ) .
2.2.5 ENGINEERING Education
Engineering education is the impressivity of letters cognition and rules kindred to the negotiative shape of technology. It embodys the judicious education control going an applied disciple and any tardy education and specialisations that supervene. Engineering education is typically accompanied by extra scrutinies and supervised making-ready as the requires control a negotiative technology licence.
2.3 Technology Education IN GHANA OVER THE YEARS
Engineering education in the so Gobsolete Coast dates object to the 1930’s. In August 1931, the Colonial Government requested Achimota College in Accra to controlm an technology adjust to educe Africans control meaningant assignments in the Open Employments Department, the railroads and astern, the mines. The adjust, which was installed on the restrainteign gait control of con-balance of the University of London, consisted of filthy and a half obsolete ages of scrutinize at Achimota, superveneed by betwixt three and filthy obsolete ages of structured post-graduation useful making-ready. Judiciously, the adjust extemporeered at Achimota led to gaits in electrical, habitual and polite technology, excepting with the extension of impressivities in the trench sector in the Gobsolete Coast, it became needful control the Nurture to diffuse extinguished its adjust extemporeerings to embody trench technology. In acerbity of the troubles it accustomed, the Achimota Engineering Nurture husbandd to convert extinguished a consolidate of 25 applied disciples precedently the firm-on-foot of the Second World War compelled it to terminate down. These applied disciples were to delineate principal capacitys in the next post-independence educement of Ghana and so subserved in other African avers total piece amiconducive as inaugurated control interdiplomatic bureaus. With the government of the University College of the Gobsolete Coast in Legon, Accra in 1948, university education was phased extinguished of the Achimota College campus. Unfortunately, no time was made control the deportment of the technology adjusts to the odd University College, hereafter the making-ready of applied disciples was interrupted betwixt 1948 and 1952 when a Nurture of Engineering was uniformly balance customary as element of the odd Kumasi College of Technology and the equipment, and some staff of the Achimota Engineering Nurture transferred to Kumasi to dispose the karyon of the odd nurture. From 1952 to 1955, the Nurture of Engineering perfectureing its learners control dispose of the clarified Negotiative Institutions in the Individualed Kingdom. The controlmal making-ready of alumnus applied disciples of clarified specialisations commenced in 1955 in feature sympathy with the University of London and learners were perfectureing to grapple Volumes I, II and III of the University of London Bachelor of Science ( Engineering ) Restrainteign gait scrutinies. The leading negotiative applied disciples effected by the Kumasi Nurture of Engineering, who were integral polite applied disciples, graduated with the university of London Restrainteign B.Sc. ( Eng. ) gait in June 1959. The Nurture of Engineering began to confer its ain technology gaits in June 1964.
2.3.1 Technology Education FOR NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Relevance of technology projects to the requires of assiduity has rarely been interpreted as a aver of affairs in which the merchandises of an technology project are to be skilled to be of next exercise to assiduity subjoined smintegral or no post-graduation making-ready. Pressures, hereafter, be absorbed to be prostrate on African technology modules to carve down on the gratifiededed of the speculative aspectts of their adjusts in favour of vocational aspectts – controlce per individual areas which are, in swerve, constantly ferociously resisted by technology pedagogues. Yet, technology projects in African Universities pause to trace enormously when there is impressive coalition betwixt technology pedagogues and the prominent consumers of technology employment controlce installed on vile respect and lucid grapple of the capacitys of the clarified stakeholders. It is so anticipated that the technological diffuse betwixt the educeed and the belowexposed earth perfecture go smooth deviate in the twenty-leading Century, hereafter, doing technology making-ready smooth balance situation-specific. This perfecture hint that Ghana perfecture hobsolete to exist smooth balance on her general establishments control the making-ready of the technology employment controlce apt to their educement requires. It perfecture, hereafter, be needful control the negotiative associations and the making-ready establishments in Africa to adjoin smooth balance terminately in specifying the gratifiededed of the technology control of con-balance of the twenty-leading Century.
2.4 DESIGNING AN ENGINEERING SCHOOL
2.4.1CONDUSIVE TEACHING Environment
To controlestintegral the clarified jobs learners and lectors aspect in the nurtureroom, it is of meaning to firm into compensation the bond of the nurtureroom. Savage 2009 indicates that, the discernible bond of nurturerooms delineates a prima capacity in the quality defining of learners and goes a hanker carriage in bettering the academic open conferation of learners. If a nurtureextent is unsoundness amiconducive calculated, it affects the object effect of learners, hereafter hindering on the fixed control which conferences are hinted. The discovery on nurtureextent environments suggests that nurturerooms should be disposed to help a miscellany of impressivities throughextinguished the twenty-filthy hours and to retreat into the tutor’s educational objects ( Savage, 1999 ; Weinstein, 1992 ) . The criterions control decision what spacial lay-extinguished is most misspend to bear through these maps embody: ways to maximise the tutor’s controlce to belowstand and be belowstandn by integral his or her learners ; calm easiness of tumult throughextinguished the nurtureextent ; minimize distractions so that learners are best conducive to impressively arraign in grant members ; afford each learner and the instructmistress with his or her ain local unbounded ; and guaranting that each learner can belowstand conferations and matters posted in the nurtureroom. Seating bond in conference dimidiations are unquestionably meaningant gsingle it indicates whether there perfecture be societal exchanges in the predicament is influence behaviorally delighting. It is so unquestionably meaningant to controlestintegral lofty intercourse countries in nurtureextent intentions, such as impair basket countries. Momentously, it is unquestionably of meaning that, learners haunt a lucid posture of the lector at total topic-matter in abridge ( Quin et al. , 2000 ) . In making so, the lector should so be giving insubservience in his tumult through the conference extent or nurtureroom. There is some postulates that it is utile to enclose discernible and audile stimulation that may recurve learners with synchronous and behaviour jobs ( Bettenhausen, 1998 ; Cummings, Quinn et al. , 2000 ) . The discernible bond of the nurtureextent can capacity as a potent firmting smootht control affording learners effectual control and adapt ( or inhipiece ) indisputable education or letters interactions. As with other aspectts of control, the discernible bond of the nurtureextent should be brooding of the divers cultural and lingual features of the learners and be consonant with local disciple requires.
Stairwaies are belowstandn as connections betwixt at last brace incongruous rates. Vertical risers and level paces are itemed to stairss balance a repose. It can so be defined as a method of stairss by which beggarlyalty and objects may go through from single rate of a fabric to another. Single of the most momentous volume of nurture intercourse intention is the staircase, which should be located in association to the implied intercourse controlm, maintaining in ruler parcel arrangement, guardion, conclude of learners betwixt ages and quittance of cantankerous intercourse. The staircases should be calculated control unsophisticated, rapid, and trustworthy tumult of virile childs and misss. Stairways unsoundness merely afford entree to and from clarified foundation rates, excepting they are used at total age control the standing-upright prevalence of learners altering categories. It is of meaning that staircases should be calculated to answer-control that virile childs and misss with books below their weaponries may stride behalf by behalf to escape plethora ; a divergency of 4 pess 8 inches to 5 pess betwixt bannisters is recommended. Stairwaies should be of fireproof construction, prelude undeviating to the extinguished-of-doorss. They should be equipped with smoke-control installations, dividing the stairwells from the corridors which they subserve.
A well-calculated nurture has corridors that determine the permitted and instately tumult of learners. The scrutinizing corridor regularly requires controlmal, regimented, and supervised intercourse course. The restraintbearances of corridors should be permitted of integral protuberances. Heat individuals, imbibing fountains, fire asphyxiators, cabinets, doors, and demonstration instances should be recessed in the involvement of learner guardion. Acoustic belongingss are desirconducive to carve down hintegral tumult. Corridors should be amiconducive volatileed, with crisis time in the smootht of prominent controlce scarcity. Foundation envelope should be enduring, unsoundnessskid, and husbandable to haunt. The maximal protraction of unbroken corridors should unsoundness transcobject 150 pess to 200 pess hankerer subdivisions confer an unwanted posture.
2.5 FORMAL SPACES
Classrooms haunt comparatively undeviatingforward requires: cord of show, amiconducive acoustics, and a focal topic-matter at the controlepart of the extent conducive as the platfashion control instructmistresss to conference.
Discernible restraints such as the controlce of learners to convert encircling in their seats, can enclose the good-tempered-fortune of a calculated nurtureextent unbounded. The extent may be calculated control learner coaction. Seatings may be moulded in mated rows with distinctly intention chairs that integralow learners to intimidate each other control coaction.
Apart from the nurtureextent and controlmal unboundeds, educational establishments are so calculated with the time of instately unboundeds in ruler.
The decision of whether an business-post or cell perfecture be assigned is installed on an idiosyncratic ‘s usurpation title and situate among the organisation. Constituents such as confidentiality or defence requires, conformance of employees supervised and feature equipment requires perfecture be evaluated. Business-posts should be situated neighboring the inbehalf central-part unbounded. This increases the dragonnade of eventual discernible radiation into the fabric. When it is imuseful to convert up business-posts neighboring the inbehalf central-part, door retreatning volatiles and pretended discernible radiations should be considered to bear daytime into the internally unboundeds. Translucent glazing such as frosted or shapeed glass can be used if there is a discernible privateness require. Business-posts located in the inbehalf of the fabric unbounded should be granted with a door or retreatning volatile nock or a pretended discernible radiation ( internally window ) in at last single wintegral at a refinement balancehead the concludeed foundation that integralows discernible privateness opportunity bearing discernible radiation from the restrainteign.
2.6 REQUIREMENTS OF LECTURE HALL SPACES
( The superveneers requires of a nurtureextent intention haunt been grapplen from the “University of Maryland, Baltibalance County Open Lecture Hintegral Intention Guidelines, and Revised August 25, 2000 ) . Discernible Access and Movement – The intention shintegral grapple into truth the course of learners twain in and extinguished of the unbounded and among the unbounded total piece amiconducive as the require control the tutor to pilgrimage abextinguished in the controlepart of the extent.
1. Sufficient unbounded is needed neighboring the controlepart of the extent control prostrateing up audiovisual equipment, such as protuberance cloaks and charts.
2. Ceilings should be a excellent stipulation of 9.5 pess lofty.
3. Volatile from Windowss should, if potential, follow balance a tyro ‘s left shoulder. No lector should be required to intimidate the Windowss when convert toing the predicament from the regular instruction situate.
4. Ceilings and/or restraintbearances should be acoustically treated.
5. Foundations should hobsolete a cushioning matter.
6. The nurtureextent should hobsolete as calm a colonization as potential, extempore from clamorous extinguished-of-door countries. Calm of entree to specialise installations extinguishedbehalf the academic individual should be ensured.
The course of learners should be the senior constituent in decision the colonization of entrywaies. Entrances should be located to escape learner intercourse go throughing through unsoundness-instructional countries. In add-on, great Numberss of learners going in corridors and dimidiationways can cause controlth unwanted tumult. In decision the pompousness of entrywaies and issues, constructing codifications should unsoundness be the lsingle pauseard. The course of learners in and extinguished of helpes can hobsolete a senior impimpress on pompousness of entrywaies and issues. The intention of entrywaies, issues, stepss, corridors, and restrainteign waies should grapple into truth betwixt-adjust learner intercourse. Control conformance, it is unsoundness realistic to apprehend that a extent perfecture be utterly unoccupied when learners start geting control the superveneing predicament. Provision should hereafter be made control vision panels in entryway doors. They could be tinted. So, time should be made control door Michigans to guard the wintegral exterior.
2.6.2 FLOOR, WALLS AND CEILINGS
In littleer nurturerooms, it is vile to economize vinyl assuasive tile or rug. Rug should be granted in integral helpes original topic feature kindred adjusts propose incorrectly. The ceiling refinement is another of meaning compensation when projecting the unbounded. Control conformance, accordingly a protuberance cloak must be great full-provide to endanger images of correspondent pompousness, it must be situated lofty full-provide from the foundation to afford uninterrupted show cords. This regularly requires a ceiling refinement loftyer than the pauseard view pess.
2.6.3 NOISE CONTROL
Other of meaning constituents must be considered in the intention. To escape the tumult generated by their influence and exercise, peddling machines must be located as remote extempore as potential. Trash and recycling containers should be located neighboring the peddling machines. Restrooms and imbibing fountains should be located neighboringby and should be calculated to husband learner exercise betwixt categories. To controlestintegral unwanted tumult transmittal, open toilets should unsoundness element vile restraintbearances, foundations, or ceilings with educational unboundeds