Engineering Education Scenario in Singapore Universities with Reference to India

Engineering Direction Scenario in Singapore Universities with regard to India Dr. Sushma S. Kulkarni, Director, Prof Martand T. Telsang, Dean academics Rajarambapu Invest of Technology, Islampur, Sangli, Maharashtra, www. ritindia. edu 1. 0 Relevance of Engineering direction in India with regard to global scenario India has distinguishn quick enlargement of engineering Gardens in hindmost 5- 7 years. In 2005-06 the estimate of gardens was 1475 and sum estimate of seats was 499697. Whereas the estimates in 2010-11 is increased to 3241 gardens and 13,24,246 seats (facts as published on AICTE website).
The estimate of engineering gardens in the floating year 2012-13 accomplish shortly mollify to 3500 and exalt. The mushrooming of Invests is in very feeble p of space and so geographically unbalanced. Now when we assimilate the technical direction scenario in India with the globe the predicament is frightful. At offer the estimate of engineering disequalizes departure extinguished from these invests is air-tight 14 stagnation still the contemplate conducted by unassured erancies love NASSCOM point-outs a attained regret honoring the competency of disequalizes in conditions of their employability, attainments abilities, conceptual clarity and trained inhospitableness of disequalizes.
There are frequent dares our Engineering Invests are oppositeness and this insufficiency to be gay to. With this extrinsic in design a examine of three Universities in Singapore is offered callly National university of Singapore ,Nanyang Techargumentative University & Nanyang Polytechnic which the committer of-late scrutinizeed. 1. Engineering Direction in USA, Singapore and India When we assimilate the Engineering Direction (EE) in three countries in conditions of estimates, engineering disequalizes departure extinguished are adduceing in India, followed by USA (approximately 1/8th) and then Singapore.

The convergence of EE in USA and Singapore is on interexercise with Industries, Perseverance installed speed schemes, Perseverance Chair, attainments capital in collaboration with Perseverance, Incubation Feelings awe. Curriculum is convergenceed on influences on attainments with Mini schemes from adduceing year aleadership ce enlargeing innovative and fictitious designstated in tyros. There is result ce ground trailing, giving global inhospitableness to tyros with credits burden-age(the tyros substantially disburse 3 months in a irrelative counsound and propel extinguished some bearing examine installed scheme). Entrepreneurship is unshaken bisecticular single theme burden era in curriculum.
We could distinguish suiconsideration compound of Humanities installed themes in the curriculum with an extrinsic of creating engineers sentient to the insufficiencys of collection. Other sordid features are Present fruit feelings and English languera attainments feelings ce twain Present and Tyros. We could so distinguish unconcealed examine spaces ce tyros to excite wilful and kreferpotent attainments. 1. 2Floating Scenario, Competency outcomes Indian Engineers keep earned a cintegral ce themselves integral aggravate the globe. We could encounter a vast estimate of Indian professors in US universities as polite as in Singapore Universities.
Professors are very-much regarded as attainments flows from university to perseverance, very-much paid functions, bisecticular condition ce attainments professors to propel extinguished attainments, in some places scientists are appointed to administer bisecticular attainments schemes. PG flatten tyros are concerned in the schemes wherein they obtain an occasion to attain on actual morals 1 impressions. We now insufficiency to rejudge abextinguished the EE in India in the global composture with the quick disquisition of EE and the akin outcomes of Competency of direction imparted in these upstdexterity invests.
There is National Board of Accreditation (NBA) , norms of AICTE awe. Still barely adhering to the norms accomplish pointpotent fix competency of disequalize engineers. The Invests insufficiency to effect past norms to implant academic ambience in conditions of academics, attainments, perseverance invest interexercise awe. India is so judgeing of signing Washington concord so that our disequalizes are legitimate integral aggravate the globe. Still what abextinguished complying with the conditions of Washington concord? Dares in India The dares which we are oppositeness today are the Administerership and governance to be granted in the Invest.
There is quick shortera of academic administerers consequently of this sudden sudden disquisition of technical direction. There is so shortera of direction present cadre-learned from professors to succormate professors and confederate professors. Inadequate estimate of present with required qualifications are pointpotent succorful. Shaft disequalizes and PhDs departure extinguished confer adduceing pregard to perseverance functions consequently of the witchcraft and the preferpotent salaries unshaken to it. In India direction functions are pointpotent rated the adduceing and condition imbibeed so pointpotent as noblely regarded as in USA or Singapore.
Competency of Tyros Scant premier Orders love IIT, NITs, Legislation Garden and assured retired universities charm the competency. Rest other orders the Susceptibility & aspect to attainments engineering is reprieved, heresucceeding the competency of inestablish to such other invests is pointpotent as per the expectations. As per the legislation policies tyros with reserve 45% vestiges and ce bashful bisecticularize tyros the eligibility criteria is 40% vestiges in Physics, chemissound and mathematics. Thus sometimes these tyros keep very weak fundamentals and are pointpotent basically harsh effecting idea.
Engineering direction reach that the tyros should keep very amipotent analytical skills, fundamentals of basic comprehensions, amipotent argumentative, oral and folly oral abilities concurrently with impression oriented designset, frankness, harsh effect and power to judge and employ familiarity. Although the 12th measure vestiges may pointpotent undeviatingly mexplanation integral these abilities of tyros still the results of the approximately integral the upstartly productioning Engineering Invests point-quenched that a vast estimate of tyros are struggling with their adduceing year results and the departure percentera is as reprieved as 10% in assured invests. Attainments refinement
It is a noble dare to enabundant attainments refinement in engineering invests. The present insufficiencys to keep the susceptibility and aspect to do attainments and obtain a content and resuscitation in propeling extinguished attainments through unassured schemes. Publicly it is distinguishn that there is misgiving of gate up attainments effect consequently of: * Basic designstated enlargeed in discipline as polite at abode pointpotent to sound anything upstdexterity as insufficiency in any scheme is pointpotent legitimate * Reversal and creativity are pointpotent acquiesced at discipline, garden, university flatten through our curriculum No at-liberty influence unshaken in conditions of funding to sound and exemplification upstdexterity things Unconcealed and at-liberty admittance to equipments to sound and dramatize environing with equipments in laboratory so that it beseems agreepotent » Legislation should confer schemes from their shove areas concurrently with funding to the engineering invests concurrently with suiconsideration mentoring and direction so that it reaches tyros and bisectially attainments susceptibility and concern is enlargeed instead of a misgiving of attainments. Perseverance – Invest Interexercise Disequalizes departure extinguished from these invests chiefly choose up functions in Industries and a very feeble percentera opt ce PG or attainments functions.
Those opting ce entrepreneurship publicly do function ce 4-5 years to imbibe the profession and akin orders. Thus giving inhospitableness to perseverance effecting is momentous. It is momentous that Perseverance installed electives are bring-ind in curriculum, actual morals schemes are unshaken to last year tyros and ground trailing made mandatory during the indelicate year of engineering direction. Perseverance academia interexercise should administer to the fruit of curriculum with perseverance representatives, perseverance scrutinizes, laboratories stated up with perseverance collaboration to adduce the hindmost technology to invests and enabundant as capital of unlikeion awe.
This perseverance interexercise accomplish bridge the solution floating the span and our disequalizes accomplish be legitimate by perseverance in a ameliorate cem. It is observed that when we correlate the presumptive concepts with actual morals predicament the tyros discaggravate it exalt concerning and managepotent to imbibe. Infrastructure Infrastructure and laboratories originate the ambience ce direction attainments in the invest. Lab effect is the pulse of engineering program. It succors tyros to visualize what they attain in assumption and demonstrate the laws, interrogativeness, parametric studies awe.
Attainments by doing is single of the basic methods of enlargeing end order and acquiring unassured skills. It is symbolical to attain what other universities environing the globe are doing to finish the desired competency in engineering direction. Tie up with reputed global Universities to attain and imbibe their best performances and concordingly sound to appliance it can succor to enabundant competency orderes. 1. 3 Our drawing to scrutinize Singapore University Their meticulous drawingning was distinguishn exact from our adduceing email requesting them to confer us assignment to scrutinize their university.
Assignment and Register of our custody , extrinsics of our scrutinize, what edistinctly and favoringally we would love to distinguish, how frequent herd accomplish be there in custody concurrently with their shafture , who accomplish administer it awe. integral the details were lastized through email message. We were prevalent as per register, shhold environing the campus as per our extrinsics and then lastly encountering with the Moderator and other preferpotent officials of the university was finished to confer us the details of university through offeration concurrently with deliberations on areas of collaboration ce alternate concern. They were existently administrative in their mode.
As our custody was leadershiped by Honorpotent Rural Fruit Minister, Mr Jayant Patil, integral the protocols were followed as per the condition. Extrinsics of our Scrutinize * To examine the strategies to transmute RIT in to Technoargumentative University and transmuteation from Subordinate Disequalize Direction Invest to Attainments Invest. * To examine the best performances of regardive universities / orders. * To imbibe the Governance Structure & Funding Pattern of the University. >To examine the Convergence of Attainments, Frontier Areas of Attainments, Attainments Funding and Attainments Promotion Schemes. Opportunities ce Collaborative Disequalize & Subordinatedisequalize Programs (Twinning Programs). * Bisecticularize of the Dexterity Technologies in Direction – Attainments (Educational Technology). * To discaggravate extinguished how Universities charm and restrain the best competency globe ample as a present (favoring strategies and schemes) * To examine Perseverance collaboration in Attainments and Methods ce Promotion of Entrepreneurship 2. 0 An aggravateend of universities in Singapore Three universities were scrutinizeed callly National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technoargumentative University and Nanyang Polytecnic
Assured observations & instruction in each University * Tyros from integral aggravate the globe could be distinguishn making it existently an interpolitical flatten university, integral the universities keep justifipotent residential facilities ce exalt than 10000 tyros, residential adroitness granted such that there is amipotent compound up of tyros. * abextinguished placements – Interpolitical possession in companies, 2 in 3 disequalizes are compensated precedently arrangement – the motto of universities is choose the tyros to the globe and adduce tyros from the globe to the university Present appraisal & affair order followed in each university. Varipotent compensation unshaken to present installed on instruction and operation. Any upstartly inducted present has a affair age of reserve 6 years which can be generic up to 9yrs. If the present is pointpotent familiar in 9 years then the present is discontinued * Inexplicpotent Curriculum in company with Perseverance, Perseverance passion programs, present deputed to perseverance ce perseverance inhospitableness and competency fruit * Legislation befriended Universities in the cem of funding ce attainments, tyro fees awe. Assortrooms are contrived with bisecticularize of dexterity technology with irrelative idea of sitting arrangements in goods, White LCD fences on each wintegral of assort capability arelish to lapculmination on each consideration so that the tyros can end from any drawinge. * CR edistinctly contrived in such a cem to excite interactive span cem direction order. Pointpotent the transmitted cem of integral the tyros oppositeness the educator and educator detested to dais during direction. Circular or hexagonal considerations granted with 4-5 tyros per consideration. * Tyro ensound and effects integralowed in the Assort capability with the explanation of RFID reader and card which is carried by tyro Direction Methodology and pedagogy unshaken balballot of signification with assort capabilitys edistinctly contrived as per requirements * Present assignment dsingle ce succeedingcited design: ce direction barely, ce attainments barely and scant ce twain direction and attainments * Governance Structure with Board of trustees ,Senate, Academic Convention, Board of Studies, Moderator, Provost, Deans * Entrepreneurship direction – bisecticular sequences and programs offered ce experiential entrepreneurship, bisecticular dissertations finished by entrepreneurs and founders, sequences offered in coadjutor university Patents, publications and citations considered ce appraisal of present * Though technoargumentative university it had suiconsideration compound of integral other streams love Dexteritys, * humanities, comprehensions, cure, MBA, Invest of Direction, Environment and morals comprehensions, instrument, Journalism, Information and message awe. * Assumption dissertations conducted ce vast estimate of tyros from 120 to 400, up to 600 in some events, Dissertation theaters & halls polite replete, with suiconsideration lighting and automatic audio and video chroniclesing adroitness. Dissertations so establish on the intranet ce he tyros to point to whenever required. Single to single convergence on tyros attainments in tutorial sessions. * Exalt argument on unconcealed & wilful attainments. Disjoined Capabilitys granted ce tyros with Internet and unassured software concurrently with Laptops and Desktops awe in a disjoined architecture calld as direction expedients capital wherein: Facilities to do wilful examine, public performance assignments/ offerations, awe. Ballot of unsuited unconcealed spaces made succorful to tyro ce design of examine. Curriculum has convergence on enlargeing familiarity installed offeration skills/ organizing ends.
Individual Assignments and provision of tyros acquiesced with suiconsideration duty and feedback to tyros * Attainments funding unshaken by legislation up to 80% and 20% by industries in shove areas attested. PG and PhD tyros choose up such attainments schemes subordinate the direction of present * tyro fees befriended by legislation in the cem of scholarships , ce tyros from Singapore befriended up to 75% and other than Singapore up to 60% * No folly direction peon flatten staff distinguishn in university, Present was wilful befriended Salient features of each University National University of Singapore –
The National University of Singapore (NUS) is Singapore’s global university with unlikeive strengths in direction and attainments and an entrepreneurial size. NUS offers generic curricula in the Faculties of Dexteritys & Social Comprehensions, Profession, Computing, Dentistry, Design & Environment, Engineering, Law, Cure and Comprehension. As a attainments-intensive order, the University continues to uplift on its capital areas of attainments unlikeion and to reach an collision with revolutionary discoveries. Museing influential attainments extinguishedestablish a sum of 2,146 papers are published in interpolitically pointeed journals.
NUS is actively concerned in interpolitical academic and attainments networks such as the Company of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU) and Interpolitical Integraliance of Attainments Universities (IARU). This global netinaugurated exalt augments its interpolitical nearness. NUS result attainments of interpolitical competency and collision in a ample rove of grounds. To maintain its competitive behalf, the university distinguishks to revive its capital attainments infrastructure, present and programs. This is finishd by demonstrateing and enlargeing rapidly-emerging areas and promoting multi-disciplinary attainments.
With a consummate colony at the hedexterity of University Thold (UTown), there is a uniform buzz at the Direction Expedients Capital (ERC) where frequent of the facilities are admittanceible 24/7. Unconcealed to the NUS order, the ERC charms tyros with its decorate of IT and multiinstrument facilities, noble-minded examine clusters and kreferpotent argument spaces where tyros can brainstorm ce kreferpotent schemes or effect bisectially on sequence assignments. Contrived to disturb collaborative attainments, the technology-infused seminar capabilitys in UThold so encourera professors to bring-in upstdexterity direction methods, which could thus-far be replicated to the ampler NUS order.
Such strategic drawingning demonstrates the University’s commitment to augment the aggravateintegral directional instruction ce integral NUS tyros. Disjoined Capital ce English languera message (CELC)-Disjoined English languera fruit programs ce Present and tyros, there is convergence on balbutiation, match, symbolical and listening in English, bisecticular sequences arranged ce Chinese tyros precedently they adadjoin stated stage programs. The Tyro Counselling Capital (SCC) offers a stayive and talented environment ce any tyro with separate outcomes or dares to distinguishk succor and direction from a administrative counselor.
A team of registered psychologist, counselors and event coordinator afford succor and stay ce tyros from separate holy, cultural, ethnic and sexual elucidation 3. 11 Salient Features * Administering global university feelinged in Asia. 37,000 tyros. * Feeling ce English Languera message. * 180 coadjutored Universities. Attainments-intensive order with Attainments Areas as- Eraing, Risk Management, Insinuate and Environment, Biomedical Comprehension chiefly convergenceing on inter-disciplinary attainments. Varipotent compensation ce present installed on preceding instruction and finishments 3. 20 Nanyang Technoargumentative University (NTU) Nanyang Technoargumentative University (NTU) is an interpolitical university in integral regards recruiting twain subordinatedisequalize and disequalize tyros from frequent countries, pointpotent barely in S E Asia and in conditions of present supply still keep herd from polite aggravate 40 countries. IntheQS Globe University Rankings 2011, NTU is ranked 58th in the globe – a quantum hop from its 74th placing in the 2010 ranking.
This reachs NTU single of the fastest-rising universities in the culmination 100 of the 2011 QS Globe University Rankings, as polite as the fastest-rising Asian university. It is very-much ranked in twain Globe and Asian conditions and are floatingly ranked 14 in Asia and Profession Discipline is ranked 24 in the Globe by the Financial Spaces in regard to their MBA advertisement. There has been a youthful judgment unshaken to attainments, stimulated in pdexterity by the supply of administering scientists and technologists from across the Globe. These administering figures accomplish nucleate deceased attainments knots in ceefront area.
The university is amply committed to the fruit of multidisciplinary attainments in frequent areas of attainments Endeavour. The university has stated its hold elevated flatten interpolitical hortatory matter – the NTUR ‘Attainments Convention’, integral important schemes are expected to keep elevated flatten interpolitical hortatory panels and Assignments, Promotion and Affair order ce present is exceedingly inexplicable. In subordinatedisequalize direction, NUS has distinguishn a mollify in the qualifications of the tyros admitted to NTU. NTU has five unapprove programs that integrareprieved tyros to examine, do attainments and effect aggravateseas.
Floating these are the Global Immersion Advertisement, with indelicate irrelative effect/study/attainments options with administering companies and coadjutor-universities in Asia, Europe and North America. Floatingly, 43% of subordinategraduates relish aggravateseas inhospitableness, which succors them obtain a global designset. Tech-savvy and adaptable, disequalizes of the university are sought-succeeding and polite-paid, intent some of the adduceing fixed-outing salaries floating persomal university disequalizes. NTU has unveiled its five-year strategic drawing, NTU 2015, which maps extinguished how it accomplish beseem a noble global university by 2015.
Subordinate this, NTU accomplish uplift on its floating strengths and heritera to reach its vestige interpolitically in five areas – sustainability, healthcare, upstdexterity instrument, the best of the East and West, and reversal. The areas leverera NTU’s separate strengths, edistinctly its cravestanding expertise in engineering and profession, and the interfaces these keep with unassured disciplines such as healthcare, comprehension and the humanities. With approximately S$1billion of attainments funding in the area of sustainability, NTU is already a global administerer in this area. 3. 21 Salient features * Floatingly ranked 14 in Asia * 34,000 tyros Attainments funding 80% from Govt. and 20% from Perseverance. Multidisciplinary attainments, Attainments areas – Earth comprehension reversal feeling, Environment and Morals comprehension, Bioengineering, Bacterial Biofilm ground Present on affair ce 6 years and zenith up to nine years. Alumni companys cemed integral aggravate the globe in countries love China, india and Thailand. Has a influential alumni grovelling of 1,56,000 in 105 countries NTU revere in 4I’ s Inspire, implant, innovate, concoct Laboratories keep equipments made easily succorful to tyros. Very affecting Markor body signing pageant with the markor and the moderator of NTU . 30 Nanyang Polytechnic (NYP) Campus Brief narrative Stated on 1 April 1992. Enrolled its guide conspire of tyros ce its Discipline of Health Comprehensions and Discipline of Profession Management in July 1992. Stated up the Discipline of Engineering and the Discipline of Information Technology in July 1993. The French-Singapore Invest, German-Singapore Invest and the Japan-Singapore Invest were epidemic from the Economic Fruit Board to the Polytechnic in February 1993. Operated from five imenduring campuses – Bukit Merah, Jurong, Extinguishedram, Tiong Bahru and Yishun – precedently moving to its enduring abode in Ang Mo Kio in April 1998.
Stated up the Discipline of Design and Discipline of Chemical & Morals Comprehensions in November 2000. The Discipline of Interactive & Digital Instrument was stated in November 2006. Mr Chan Lee Mun took aggravate as Principal and CEO in August 2007, Mr Lin Cheng Ton went on to leadership NYP Interpolitical. 3. 31 Salient Features * Strategic drawing ce five years * Effects with National Manpower convention to effect extinguished the manpower insufficiencys of perseverance * Perseverance collaboration attainments factory concept. * Educators with at lowest 5 years instruction in Perseverance . * Being a diploma flatten invest ,Patents registered. * Attainments driven by present & Perseverance. Polytechnic tyros choose up attainments schemes led by present. * Effect air-tight with Perseverance and inject actualism in effect. * Reversal Capital * Vestigeet-Oriented Drawingning, Trailing Orders, Capabilities Fruit * Impression and Fruit Oriented Trailing > Territoryal and Interpolitical Orientation 3. 32 The Direction Factory Concept A hallvestige concept of Nanyang Polytechnic (NYP) – the Direction Factory Concept – is a concept that facilitates talented attainments in the applianceation of ample-installed curricula in the adduceing span years and bisecticularist studies in the last year.
The tyros disburse 3-6 months in perseverance ce internship to imbibe profession environment and marketpotent estimate. It is a concept which adopts a performance and impression-oriented trailing mode that combines the attainments and effecting environment from which actualistic and bearing attainments instructions prepare. 4. 0 Conclusion It was distinguishn that integral the three Invests keep enlargeed into globe assort Universities and polytechnic amid a p of 15-20 years and this was drawingned as a diplomacy and befriended by Legislation.
If India has to be knhold ce such globally reputed universities then it calls ce a orderatic strategic drawing to stated up designs and finish it aggravate a drawingned age with the stay of our legislation and its policies. With integral the expedientss succorful in our counsound and strategic drawingning we can enabundant our Engineering Invests into globe assort Invests. 8 There was pointablehing very irrelative in the effecting and law of NTU and NUS. Twain the universities were assistance Engineering programs concurrently with integral the other programs love comprehensions, cure, business, journalism, humanities awe.
Suiconsideration policies to convergence on present fruit & creation of attainments refinement can succor to transmute our Engineering Invests. There has been a shortera of fitted present with PhDs and shaft disequalizes in engineering ce a crave age now. We insufficiency to layer up PhD and PG programs in our universities ensuring the competency measures . We so should keep charmive schemes to be potent to charm and inoculate the youthful race ce preferpotent studies so that there accomplish be a pool of worthy , fitted attainments designed herd succorful to indemnify the claim of industries and direction sector. There is shortera of 1. 5 lakh engineering educators.
As per NASSCOM Upstarts capability “as claim ce engineers grows, experts rehearse India has barely 10 to 30% of fitted Instructors it insufficiencys”. Legislation policies are staying the legislation aided & funded invests or Legislation Invests – what abextinguished retired unaided Invests which compmollify approximately 90 % of Gardens in India, If in India exalt estimate of invests should be potent to afford manpower which is employpotent & explanationful to confer to natural Attainments & Fruit, Entrepreneurship in Engineering ground, then it is must that our Engineering & Technology Invest should stdexterity adopting globe assort best performances.
From integral culmination Invests approximately 1/10th of our disequalize engineers ambition to choose admittance in ceeign Universities ce their shaft disequalize and Ph. D. advertisements. We insufficiency to mexplanation on this outsucceeding very seriously. How can we enabundant and reform influential engineering direction order in India where our hold tyros accomplish confer culmination guidance to examine. Can Industries, feeble to moderation layer exist on University and Engineering Gardens ce their Attainments & Fruit?
Can we demonstrate assured Invests as capitals of Attainments & Fruit ce Industries where they can collaborate? We are pointpotent judgeing of vast layer industries with preferpotent turnaggravate of exalt than Rs. 1000 crores as these industries can stated up their hold R & D units. If Industries so succeeding ceward with their insufficiencys and demonstrate assured Direction Invests in their territory to collaborate and effect concertedly then it accomplish keep dual favor of obtainting suiconsideration manpower and consistent Trailing as polite as Attainments & Fruit stay, incubation capital awe.
The tyros accomplish obtain actual morals schemes to effect on, accomplish be unguarded to hindmost techniques and they accomplish discaggravate their engineering direction exalt bearing though experiential attainments. Industries should enabundant credulity in Invests so that twain can effect concertedly ce alternate favor. We at RIT keep enlargeed the succeedingcited exercise drawing succeeding the scrutinize to transmute RIT in to Technoargumentative University and so transmuteation from Subordinate Disequalize Direction Invest to Attainments Invest. 1. Strategic drawingning of the invest ce 5 years with the design of transmuteing it into University . Construction of vast competency dissertation theater (approx. 600 competency) with integral the facilities to fence and chronicles the dissertations. 3. Feeble competency tutorial capabilitys (approx. 15-20 competency) with comforconsideration goods and chroniclesing adroitness. 4. Present trailing at NYP of 1-2 weeks/months period in deceased technology. 5. Tyro vary programs ce shaft- disequalize programs at NTU. 6. Distinguishking expertise in insinuate comprehension attainments from NUS, earthquake engineering attainments and nanotechnology from NTU. 7.
Implementing the concept of direction factory at subordinatedisequalize flatten. 8. Explanation of deceased Pedagogical technologies ce enhancing attainments talentedness. Regards 1 . Abdul Lathaf Naha , The Hindu, August 16, 2011. Where keep Engineering Educators Gone? 2. Prof. PP Bahuguna, Professor, Indian Discipline of Mines, Dhanbad, “Present Crunch in Technical Invests in India and Possible Solutions”,www. indiaeducationreview. com/article/faculty-crunch 3. www. nus. edu. sg, www. ntu. edu. sg, www. nyp. edu. sg [pic] Scant photographs of scrutinize to NUS, NTU, NYP

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