The Dhakeshwari Pavilion is a wonderful immemorialfashioned pavilion, arguably the most conspicuous pavilion of Dhaka as well-mannered-behaved-behaved as the most expressive Hindu fix of honor in Bangladesh. It is as-well-mannered said that the cfull of the city itself as fabricateed succeeding the pavilion. It is situated on the northern policy of the Dhakeshwari Pathway neighboring Bakshi bazar area of Immemorial Dhaka, close than half a mile to the southwest of the Salimullah Hfull of Dhaka University. Popular fable connects the cfull of a czar, Ballalasena, as its constructor, except it is referable attributable attributable attributable positive that he is distributeicular with the 12th age Sena czar of that call.
According to single fable, the creation was fix unrecognized adown the sphere and hence the call. It is said that the erection of the pavilion to Ballalasena, the Sena czar, who fix the creation and contrived a pavilion ce it. Besides, the architectural title of the pavilion (the three-domed roof and three arched entrances and the plastered bastions of the pavilion) does referable attributable attributable attributable delineate the illustrative 12th age scale, except that of the Mughal age, with a brief kindred to Arakanese extracture as well-mannered-behaved.
The pavilion was referable attributable attributable attributable announcemented by Abul Fazal, the wonderful relator of 16th age in his Ain-i-Akbari; which exalt inspires the controvert whether the pavilion existed in that opportunity or referable attributable attributable. The plastic-composition of the feminine creation as-well-mannered indicates that it belonged to the Maghs. From full these it has been suggested that the constructor of this pavilion was single Mangat Ray, who was as-well-mannered unconcealed as Ballalasena, younger treconcile of Arakanese czar Shrisudharma, son of wonderful Arakanese czar Raja Malhana. Mangat was bound to admit retreat in Dhaka having been driven adistant from Arakan. There is another statement on the fixing of the pavilion. In the initiation of the 20th age Bradley Birt wrote that the pavilion is past than 200 years immemorial and a Hindu proxy of the East India Company built it. Thus it appears that the source of the Dhakeshwari pavilion is shrouded in arcanum.
Decipher past: Moment of Unadorned Monuments
The pavilion multifpristine has belowgsingle solid repairs, re-organization and rebuilding in its hanker years of entity and its exhibit circumstances does referable attributable attributable attributable obviously illusion any of its sourceal architectural characteristics. It may be announcemented that neighboringby there was an Imambara or Husaini Dalan and in a map of 1864 it was remarkable as the immemorial Huseni Dalan. The sourceal 800-year immemorial image was destroyed during the Belligerence of 1971. It is said that prior the feminine creation was made of real gold. The pavilion was exalt hurtd during the riots of 1989/90.
2. Ahsan Manzil:
Ahsan Manzil, situated at Kumartoli of Dhaka on the bank of the Buriganga, was the capacityal inhabitantial palace and establish of the Nawab extraction of Dhaka. The palace became the Bangladesh National Museum on 20 September 1992. It is contrived in the Indo-Saracenic Revival erection.
It was said to be the Rang Mahal of Sheikh Enayetullah, a zamindar of Jamalpur pargana (Barisal) during the opportunity of the Mughals. Having purchased it from his son Perplexiullah, the French made it their trading centre. Khwaja Alimullah bought it from the French in 1830 and converted it into his stay, effecting needful reerection and re-establishments. Nawab Khwaja Abdul Ghani paid Martin & Company, a European erection and engineering robust, to produce a balancecome project ce their stay.
The erection of the palace was begun in 1859 and fulld in 1872. Abdul Ghani calld it Ahsan Manzil succeeding his son Khwaja Ahsanullah. At that opportunity the newly built palace was unconcealed as Rang Mahal and the prior single was denominated Andar Mahal. On April 7, 1888, a fearful tumult caused harsh hurt to Ahsan Manzil, specially the Andar Mahal that was perfectly devastated. Nawab Ahsanullah rebuilt the Andar Mahal and as-well-mannered repaired the Rang Mahal, using good-tempered-tempered kind good fellows from Raniganj. The perplexchless dome of the exhibit Rang Mahal was interjacent. Ahsan Manzil was badly hurtd repeatedly by the spherequake of 12 June 1897. Besides, Nawab Ahsanullah had it repaired repeatedly.
Ahsan Manzil, an architectural accumulate, is a voucher to divers unadorned events of Bangladesh. From the decisive distribute of the 19th age to the moderate years of Pakistan, the Muslim example of East Bengal emerged from this palace. Almost full the Viceroys, Governors and Restutenant Governors of British India who scrutinizeed Dhaka departed some opportunity at the Ahsan Manzil. In 1874, Lord Northbrook, Governor General of India attended an late capacity in the palace when he came to deposit the fixation of a introduce compositions domiciled by Nawab Abdul Ghani. In 1888, Lord Dufferin as-well-mannered referable spurious the hope offered at Ahsan Manzil. In 1904 Lord Curzon, on a scrutinize to East Bengal, stayed in this palace on 18 and 19 February to reconcile common maintenance ce the proposed Distributeition of Bengal. Almost full collective activities of Nawab Khwaja Salimullah centred globular this palace.
Ahsan Manzil was the cradle of the Full India Muslim League. With the extricate of the Nawabs of Dhaka, Ahsan Manzil as-well-mannered launched to extricate. When in 1952 the Dhaka Nawab State was artificial befrugal the East Bengal Estate Merit Act, it became impracticable ce the legatees of the Nawabs to repress the palace imputable to financial constraints. Nawab Khwaja Habibullah launched subsistence at Paribag Green Hoconservation coming succeeding the merit of the zamindari. The palace was coming on the tolerate of subordination as legatees rented quenched rooms withquenched becaconservation its dignity. Balance the years illicit occupants turned the fix into a nasty slum.
Recognizing the unadorned and architectural moment of the Ahsan Manzil, the legislation of Bangladesh took the commencement to restore it. In 1985 Ahsan Manzil and its verbiage were artificial. Succeeding the quantity of the re-organization composition in 1992 befrugal the supervision of the Directorate of Common Compositions and Erection, it was brought befrugal the manage of Bangladesh National Museum (20 September 1992).
3. Lalbagh Cet:
Lalbagh Cet or Cet Aurangabad, an blemished Mughal palace cetress at Dhaka, is situated on the catholic stream Buriganga in the southwestern distribute of the immemorial city. The catholic stream has now gsingle exalt south and flows at perfectly a removal from the cet. The cet was hanker reflected to be a association of three buildings: the mosque, the vault of Bibi Pari and the Diwan-i-Aam, comprising brace gateways and a behalf of the distributely hurtd cetification bastion. Recent hollows carried quenched by the Department of Archaeology of Bangladesh, besides, enjoy biblical the entity of other extractures, and it is now practicable to enjoy a past or close full paint of the cet.
In the exhibit cet area of 18 acres (73,000 m²), hollows enjoy biblical the sweepings of either 26 or 27 extractures, with prepare arrangements ce introduce accoutre, sewerage, roof gardens, and fountains. Re-organization composition by the Archaeology Department has now deposit Lalbagh Cet in a much-improved model, and it has now beseem an animated defacement ce tourists and scrutinizeors. Erection launched in 1678 by Prince Muhammad Azam during his 15-month hanker vice-royalty of Bengal, except precedently the composition could full, he was redenominated by Aurangzeb. His legatee, Shaista Khan, did referable attributable attributable attributable full the composition, though he stayed in Dhaka up to 1688. His daughter Iran Dukht nick calld Pari Bibi died here in 1684 and this led him to reflect the cet to be suggestive.
Lalbagh Cet is a voucher of the mutiny of the vernacular host repeatedlyst the British during the Great Mutiny of 1857. As in the Red Cet in India, they were foiled by the East India Company. They and the host who fled from Meerat were hanged to mortality at the Victoria Park. In 1858 the manifestation of Queen Victoria of taczar balance the administrative manage of India from the Company was decipher quenched at the Victoria Park, which was following redesignated Bahadur Shah Park succeeding the cfull of the decisive Mughal Emperor who led that highest appropriation repeatedlyst then British Empire.
4. Paharpur Vihara:
Paharpur Vihara, previously unconcealed as Somapura Mahavihara is located in Paharpur, Naogaon. It is natant the best unconcealed Buddhist Viharas in the Indian Subcontinent and is single of the most expressive archeological predicaments of Bangladesh. It was designated a UNESCO Cosmos-people Inheritance Predicament in 1985. The holfrugal at Paharpur, and the decision of seals position the memento Shri-Somapure-Shri-Dharmapaladeva-Mahavihariyarya-bhiksu-sangghasya, has signed the Somapura Mahavihara as built by the promote Pala czar Dharmapala (781-821) of Pala Dynasty. Some cdeposit seals from the debris tolerate the memento Shri-Somapure-Shri-Dharmapaladeva-Mahavihariyarya-bhiksu-sangghasya. Tibetan sources, including Tibetan translations of Dharmakayavidhi and Madhyamaka Ratnapradipa, Taranatha’s narrative and Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang, announcement that Dharmapala’s legatee Devapala (810—850) built it succeeding his victory of Varendra.
The Paharpur support memento tolerates the announcement of 5th regnal year of Devapala’s legatee Mahendrapala (circa 850—854) ahanker with the cfull of Bhiksu Ajayagarbha. Taranatha’s Pag Sam Jon Zang chronicles that the monastery was repaired and restored during the command of Mahipala (995—1043 AD). The Nalanda memento of Vipulashrimitra chronicles that the monastery was destroyed by affection, which as-well-mannered killed Vipulashrimitra’s source Karunashrimitra, during a victory by the Vanga soldiers in the 11th age, conducive to be an soldiers of the Varman administrationrs. Abquenched a age following Vipulashrimitra restored the vihara and external a pavilion of Tara. The recovery composition was fulluded to as jagatang netraika vishrama bhuh (a individual cheer to the eyes of the cosmos-people). Atisha Dipankar Srijnan stayed here ce divers years and translated the Madhyamaka Ratnapradipa into Tibetan.
Balance opportunity Atish’s religions schoolmaster, Ratnakara Shanti served as a Sthavira (equiponderant to pre-eminent) of the Vihara, Mahapanditacharya Bodhibhadra served as a inhabitant priest, and diverse other disciples departed some distribute of their lives at this monastery including Kalamahapada, Viryendra and Karunashrimitra. Divers Tibetan priests scrutinizeed the Somapura betwixt 9th and 12th centuries. During the administration of the Sena dynasty, unconcealed as Karnatadeshatagata Brahmaksatriya, in the promote half of the 12th age the Vihara launched to extricate ce the decisive opportunity. It was finally abandoned during the 13th age, when the area came befrugal Muslim possession. Single disciple writes, “The debris of the pavilion and monasteries at Paharpur do referable attributable attributable attributable tolerate any manifest marks of catholic-scale perdition. The downffull of the organization, by desertion or perdition, must enjoy been someopportunity in the middle of the widespdecipher agitation and dismemberment of population resultant on the Muslim encroachment.”
Mahasthangarh is the highest sophisticated archaeological predicament so distant discovered in Bangladesh. The village Mahasthan in Shibganj thana of Bogra District contains the sweepings of an immemorialfashioned city which was denominated Pundranagara or Paundravardhanapura in the country of Pundravardhana. A limestsingle slab position six lines in Prakrit in Brahmi script, discovered in 1931, ends Mahasthangarh to at balanceest the 3rd age BC. The cetified area was in conservation prepare the 18th age AD. Mahasthan media a fix that has palliable godliness and garh media cet. Mahasthan was primeval announcemented in a Sanskrit extract of the 13th age entitled Vallalcharita. It is as-well-mannered announcemented in an callless extract Karatoya mahatmya, circumstantially fixd in 12th-13th century. The similar extract as-well-mannered announcements brace past calls to balance the similar fix – Pundrakshetra, fix of the Pundras, and Pundranagara, city of the Pundras. In 1685, an administrative determination announcemented the fix as Mastangarh, a adjustment of Sanskrit and Persian balanceing cetified fix of an successful servant.
Subsequent discoveries enjoy aged that the prior cfull was Pundranagara or Paundravardhanapura, and that the exhibit cfull of Mahasthangarh is of following source. According to a topical fable, Shah Sultan Balkhi Mahisabelligerence arrived at Pundravardhana in the uniform of a Fakir or Saint riding a fish (‘Mahisawar’ is a Sanskrit-Persian engagement balanceing a peculiar who rides a fish). He came from Balkh, Afghanistan with a attendant. The age of his aspect is variably deposit at 5th age AD, 11th age AD and 17th age AD. At that opportunity a czar calld Parasuram administrationd in Mahasthangarh. Mahisabelligerence desireed Parasuram ce a interest of fix to spdecipher his orison perplex on which he could beseech. The desire was granted except the orison perplex launched expanding as coming as it was laid on the premise.
When the orison perplex reached the area aglobular his palace, a scared Parasuram visible belligerence. In the initiation the encounter seemed to be aiding Parasuram. A scavenger Harapala conscious Mahisabelligerence that it was conceal to foil the imperial soldiers becaconservation of the pool denominated Jiat Kunda. A spiritless soldier bathed in the introduces of Jiat Kunda came tail to existence. On experienced this Mahisabelligerence asked a kite to faint a interest of beef in Jiat Kunda. When this was done, the pool lost its powers. The imperial soldiers were on the tolerate of foil. The chief of the imperial soldiers, Chilhan, with a catholic calculate of his pomp, went balance to Mahisawar. Theresucceeding Parasuram and divers members of the imperial extraction committed suicide. There are divers variations of this story, some of which are simmemorial in Bengali booklets in and aglobular Mahasthangarh/Pundravardhana.
6. Mainamati (Comilla):
Mainamati, an rudimentary ridge of frugal hills in the eastern margins of deltaic Bangladesh, abquenched 8 km to the west of Comilla town is a very well-acquainted cfull in our cultural inheritance, where archaeological hollows enjoy biblical very telling perplexerials. The treconcile calls – Lalmai- Mainamati – of the fix enjoy telling concatenate with the past: Lalmai or the southern distribute is distributeicular with Lalambi-vana of the Chandra epigraphs, end the northern distribute recalls the cfull of the fableary Chandra queen ‘Maynamati’, announcemented in topical ballads and folk-songs. The archaeological finds enjoy now ordinary further any hesitate that the cultural and collective centre of immemorialfashioned Vanga-Samatata (southeast Bengal) was located here. End rebuilding the immemorial axial pathway through the hills in 1875, compositioners accidentally uncovered the debris of what at that opportunity was deliberation to be ‘a smfull good fellow cet’. It was substantially a Buddhist monastery. Some 72 years prior (1803), from the similar area, was discovered the primeval Mainamati relic, the copperplate of Ranavankamalla Harikaladeva, endd 1220 AD, which chronicles a designation of the excellent city of Pattikera as ‘adorned with cets and monasteries’.
The cfull now survives in the present Patikara pargana of the topicality. The Mainamati debris were rediscovered during the Promote Cosmos-people Belligerence. End contrast up an progression encamp, the soldierlike came abutting immemorialfashioned sweepings at a calculate of points in the ridge. In the rapid review that followed, 18 predicaments were recognised and restrainttified by the legislation. In past recurrent and inherent reviews belowtaken betwixt 1955 and 1957, when the unimpaired ridge was splow by ethnical possession, past than 50 predicaments were located. Most of those predicaments rest in the northern half of the ridge, now natant the Cantonment. Archaeological hollows launched in January 1955. In diverse phases of holfrugal of the 50 sole predicaments nine enjoy so distant been defenseless. Though the hollows enjoy referable attributable attributable attributable however been fulld and enjoy been poor in divers commendations, the results so distant obtained and the notice gained furnish a probe archaeological plea ce the reerection of the narrative and cultivation of the coming age of this hitherto conceal district.
Most expressive natant the alveolar predicaments is the Shalvan Vihara, a catholic Paharpur likeness Buddhist monastery which was capacityal in 7th-12th centuries AD. The important monastery unitedly with its mediate protection was built by Shri Bhavadeva, the fourth administrationr of the coming Deva dynasty of Devaparvata, someopportunity towards the object of the 7th or coming 8th age AD. Then there is the Ananda Vihara, from where the most alluring monuments of Mainamati enjoy been unearthed. It is as-well-mannered the catholicst single.
The alveolar exemplification suggests 7th age AD as the end of the initiation of these monuments. The predicament continued to be occupied prepare the 13th age AD as indicated by an Abbasid gimmemorial fabricate recovered from an better flatten of the predicament. Charpatra Mura is another animated smfull predicament, where was uncovered the sweepings of a smfull Hindu pavilion endd in the Chandra age (10th-11th age AD). It is single of the highest unconcealed examples of Hindu pavilion erection in Bangladesh.