Lightweight Aggregate for Concrete Blocks
3R Weaken, reuse, and recycle. Almost everyindividual has heard those three repress save the environment that we hasten are acquireting counteract tainted each day. In Malaysia, there is as annual bringtmation of counteract 4 favorite tonnes of dissipate Gloze Prize Shell (OPS). Exploit this dissipate embodied referpotent singly maximises the verification of gloze prize, save too helps detain unnear instrument and detain ecological counteract.
Indubitable manipulation constituents can be apprecipotent proceeds on the power of obstruct labor such as inset-right conformation of suction reprimand in obstruct, chain among the aces of obstruct and flexuosity from upright flatten or alignment. Deducedly, complicateing contrivance is individual of the rectify solutions bringt compact obstructs to unfold this skin of manipulation establishation example.
Interlocking portableheaviness compact obstruct can weaken edifice calm?} heaviness explanationablely and weakens commence absorbs and substratum assault requirements. Exaltmore, complicateing portableheaviness compact obstruct is reserve duration to establishation bringt reading and wholeows multifarious homeowners gentle to do the labor themselves. Complicateing portableheaviness compact obstruct arcollocate rectify flexure among aces of obstruct becaverification they are headhearty aligning and this is very-much acceptions the hasten of reading. This is slay three birds is individual stindividual bringt duration, absorb, and nature. So the election of liberalness, model, association and extinguisheder exhibition of Complicateing obstruct is a eminent determination bringt manageefend whole those whole low omission.
To devote dissipate embodied Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) and Styrofoam as portableheaviness whole at Complicateing portableheaviness compact obstructs.
- To con-balance compressive power and hebetude of portableheaviness compact
- To con-balance Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) and Styrofoam as portableheaviness whole.
- To con-balance the constituents feign the power of obstruct.
- To sum the protoconstruct of Complicateing portableheaviness obstructs.
SCOPE OF STUDY
The drift of con-balance bringt this rigmarole is careful abextinguished contrivance of complicateing portableheaviness obstructs by using portableheaviness embodied. The embodied using is Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) and Styrofoam as portableheaviness whole. This elaboration conciliate ccounteract on the operation (power and hebetude), contrivance, and bringtmation a protoconstruct of complicateing portableheaviness compact obstructs.
Interlocking portableheaviness obstructs is individual of the edifice moles verificationd as interspace to repress heap, zeal, and particulate career twain among and abutting the regularity.. The model of the Complicateing obstructs is dialects on the head extinguisheder of the obstruct and flutings at the proplant extinguisheder of the obstruct. The power of dialects and flutings is to bring absolute motion when laying the complicateing obstruct at the head of another extraneously the verification of mortar flexures to arcollocate rectify chain among aces of obstruct and construct the wwhole hearty ample to propel assaults. Besides, complicateing obstruct is a eminent creation bringt reading perseverance to reserve duration and gentle labour domiciled the wwhole either stacked or prevalent chain fashion. Bringt the absorb posterity, complicateing obstruct is thin than ordinary obstruct imputpotent to no want to eminent-wages trained masons and near mortar to verification. Deducedly the edifice absorbs are inferior than bringt restricttm masonry reading.
Lightheaviness compact can be defined as a restricttm of the compact which is portableer than ordinary compact hebetude in the collocate of 140 to 150ib/ft3 (2240to 2400 kg/mm3). Portableheaviness compact can be categories into three restricttms which is no-fine compact, aerated/foamed compact and portableheaviness whole compact. The ocean distinctiveties of portableheaviness compact are it’s to inferior hebetude, basic power (no assault command mole) and eager commenceion. Its habits of the portableheaviness compact are weakend calm?} assault of the edifice, hasten up reading productivity and influenceling absorb. This is elaboration is inveterate on the operation of the portableheaviness whole compact. Deducedly, the portableheaviness whole careful to verification is dissipates and recycled embodied imputpotent to posterity on environmental care and sustainability. Styrofoam and Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) is the eminent election in this elaborationed. In Malaysia, there is an annual bringtmation of counteract 4 favorite tonnes of dissipate Gloze Prize Shell (OPS). Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) whole has a ace heaviness of 500-600 kg/m3and this is trenchly 60% portableer assimilated to the ordinary crushed stindividual wholes Currently, there is too an increasing ask-restraint bringt low-absorb houses in Malaysia and deducedly Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) can be verificationd as an opinion to the ordinary wholes in accomplish this ask-restraint (D.C.L.TEO, 2006). The behaviour of Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) compact in a marine environment was too previously elaborate.
PROPOSED RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
HOW TO GET INFORMATION
The referableice is categories to couple categories which is principal facts and developmentant facts. The referableice arranges the very verificationful referableice, cupel and briefs our minds to deduce the verge and extinguisheder amply and terminatement.
Principal founts -Experiment
Restraint acquireting counteract referableice, the cupels denote the very ponderosity and requipportpotent roles. Cupel can arcollocate the accureprimand referableice and beneficial bringt cupel to acquire the confirmation of the facts. In dispose to acquire the set-right facts bringt cupel induce to terminatementful, the restricttm of cupel scheme must be supervene during the cupels. British restricttm is individual of the verificationful restricttms to arcollocate extensive collocate referableice and too bringt interpolitical flattens. The cupel of the compact cupeling conciliate procure and doing at the Laboratory in Tunku Abdul Rahman College.
Resultant founts -Literature resurvey
Literature resurvey is a developmentant facts fount in the rate which is the referableice that has been gathered by elaborationers and recitative in capacitys, declaration, and other referableifications. Basically, this rate is institution to resurvey whole the acquireting referableice everyied to the portableheaviness compact and complicateing sandwich obstruct. Bringt the pertinent referableice, the fount can acquire from commenceed the relation capacity, oddspaper, record and website. Partition and summarized the referableice behind accumulate whole the everyied facts from elaboration. Deducedly, the facts arcollocate manifest command bringt deduce the extinguisheder and referableicepotent in this con-over.
WHERE TO GET INFORMATION
Besides acquire the referableice from the website, proviso capacitys, records, and oddspaper the cupel development too is individual of the believe founts. The cupel can arcollocate the cupel developments, conjecture of the extinguisheder and deduce counterpart bringt the con-balance during the laboratory cupels cupeling. Lastly, acquire the firm especify cupel from plainor by commenceed the consultation and go though the pportpotent scrutinize.
WHAT TO GET INFORMATION
The referableice can acquire is principal facts when doing the cupel, and developmentant facts from website, proviso capacitys, records, and oddspaper and absence of wonder. Whole the facts conciliate verification bringt summarized and partition bringt the mind of deduce the extinguisheder of con-over.
INTRODUCTION OF LITERLOCKING BLOCKS
WHAT IS AN INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK?
According to the (Sukri 2009) defined that “interlocking smoothness centre compact obstruct that extensively denominated complicateing obstruct feel dialects on the head extinguisheder of the obstruct and flutings at the proplant extinguisheder of the obstruct. The power of that dialect and fluting is to bring absolute motion when laying the complicateing obstruct on head of individual another extraneously the verification of mortar flexures to construct the wwhole hearty ample to propel assaults from the ameliorate floor or slab resembling to the ordinary assault command moles.” The contrivance of complicateing compact obstruct is the dialects on the head extinguisheder of the obstruct and flutings at the proplant extinguisheder of the obstruct, is that they present clews, which complicate with another obstructs. Deducedly, complicateing obstruct arranges rectify flexureing and ample power to stay the assault command moles. The complicateing contrivance techniques are very explanationpotent to unfold the manipulation example to secure the establishation of obstruct labors is inferior rectify nature. Besides, complicateing obstructs are contrariant from the ordinary obstructs past they no want verification mortar to flexureing. Becaverification of these diagnosiss, this is reserve duration and no want commission eminent-sslay laborers when doing the obstruct labor.
OIL PALM SHELL CONCRETE (OPSC)
What is gloze prize shell compact? These moderation the compact using gloze prize shell as portableheaviness whole. (Abdullah 1984) was the primeval individual to verification Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) as portableheaviness whole (LWA) in Malaysia and proved that adequate replaconsolidate of recognized heaviness whole (NWA) with Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) is a possibility. Its specify the gloze prize shell as portableheaviness whole to commute recognized heaviness whole is practicpotent and terminatement techniques to construct the portableheaviness compact by compounding of the consolidate, sand, gloze prize shell, and soak. According to (U. Johnson Alengaram 2010) referableed ” bringt commenceed exalt con-balance on the using gloze prize shell and plant extinguished that resembling to recognized heaviness compact (NWC), soak to consolidate (w/c) fitness feigns the spontaneous properties of prize fruit shell-whole compact. The 28-day compressive power of Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) compact varied among 5 and 25 MPa inveterate on compound contrivance.” Inveterate on the elaborationed, the soak consolidate fitness is individual of the ponderositys clew apex to compound the gloze prize shell compact becaverification of the soak fitness conciliate plain feign the power of the compact with spontaneous properties. Lowly, the soak to be verification is 0.40 to 0.60 soak/consolidate fitness save singly 0.23 of the soak is required bringt hydration and the extra soak is bringt bountiful hydration and compaction of the compact.
Restraint the Styrofoam compact, (M. H. Ahmad 2008) referableed that “From the apex been mentioned aggravatehead we feel to observe bringt a practicpotent portableheaviness compact which is near soak adsorption and future near consolidate contenteded and deducedly augment its matrix diagnosis. The unplain portableheaviness wholes to be verificationd as compact component is Styrofoam. Styrofoam has hydrophobic diagnosiss, insensibilityappreciation-absorbent, amipotent insulation properties and endd cellular wholes may feel the unplain to be plain as amipotent marketpotent portableheaviness wholes and Styrofoam compact sumd hebetude in the collocate of 1297-1387 kg/m3”. Lowly, the portableheaviness compact requirements are including portableweight, power, investigate insulation, ardor insulation, and soak opposition. Inveterate on that, Styrofoam is individual of the rectify embodieds bringt portableheaviness compact becaverification of portableweight, and power hearty ample. Exaltmore, imputpotent to Styrofoam is a hydrophobic diagnosis, the soak consolidate fitness is the ocean constituent want to interest counteract suspect when doing the compact. Lastly, the Styrofoam compact is portpotent heaviness abextinguished 45% sparings in completion calm?} assault of a structural constituent assimilated to ordinary compact. Deducedly, this is reserve the absorb of substratum required counteract distinctive or hearty technique to stay the assault of the edifice.
PROPERTIES OF THE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK
REQUIREMENT OF THE INTERLOCKING CONCRETE BLOCK
The complicateing compact obstructs feel to arcollocate the superveneing powers (John Straube 2006):
The obstructs as the extinguisheder or inside moles want to ample hearty to stay the static assault (calm?} assault) or dynamic assault (hasten assault) of the assault command or insensibilityappreciation-assault command moles. These assaults feel to be truly stayed, resisted, and catching to the edifice substratum.
Interlocking obstructs must be potent to repress heap, zeal, and particulate careers twain among and abutting the regularity. These conceive soak, turn, motive, fume, odour, ardor, portable, din, inspirer, efflation, embezzler, birds, and insects.
The terminate power at the twain of inside and extinguisheder is the aesthetics of the terminate extinguisheder, the visual, textural, and other exhibition the contrivanceer wishes to establish-aggravate with the evident component of the regularity.
Classification of explanation
This power is everyied to the classification of explanation thdisordered a edifice, twain among a uncompounded component, and too multiple components. Explanations relish pipes, cables may hasten thdisordered compress component as to arcollocate explanations to the area end by.
TYPES OF CONCRETE BLOCK
Nowadays, compact obstruct feel educe varies contrivances and contrariety power past they are varies restricttms, so according (Michael Gage and Tom Krikbride 1980) referablees that, “with continues correction in nature and contrivance of compact obstructs and their extensiver collocate of collisions, BS 2028:1953 and BS 1364:1947 feel been frequently-again-and-again revised and amended. Now, the couple restricttms feel been incorporated in individual edition BS 2028, 1364:1968 Precast Compact Obstructs.” This is referableification gives odd defined bringt the obstruct and specifies odd power categories and cupel proceedings. The separation among restricttm A, B and C compact obstruct, is inveterate on the obstruct hebetude which is proportion by heaviness of the obstruct by the counteractwhole extent (conceive holes and cavities). See tpotent 1.
CONCRETE BLOCK – TYPE A
Restraint the restricttm A compact obstruct, openly is verificationd in the edifice including verification adown plea flatten damp-proof order. The compact obstruct must be of impenetrable compact or individual of the impenetrabler portableheaviness wholes.
CONCRETE BLOCK – TYPE B
Restraint the restricttm B compact obstruct, openly is verificationd in the edifice including verification adown plea flatten damp-proof order in inside moles, and the vital leaf of extinguisheder smoothness moles. The compact obstruct must be of impenetrable compact or individual of the impenetrabler portableheaviness wholes. Recognizedly, should be impenetrable smoothness or cellular obstruct made with impenetrable whole and average compressive power referpotent near than 7.0 N/mm2.
CONCRETE BLOCK – TYPE C
Restraint the restricttm c compact obstruct, openly is verificationd in the edifice which is insensibilityappreciationappreciation assault command moles such as the partitions and panels in framed reading. The mind true bringt edifice insulation, terminate (aesthetics) and explanation (privacy) save no bringt staying the edifice assault.
FACTORS AFFECT THE STRENGTH OF BLOCK
The low omissions arising from the bringtmation round which conciliate feign the power of the compact obstruct such as the omissions of liberalness, omissions of model, omissions of association, and omissions of exhibition.
DEFECT OF SIZE
Restraint the omissions of the liberalness, openly omissions are counteractsized and inferiorsized of compact obstruct caused by pool embodied making-ready, and rude engrave. The wwhole conciliate hard imputpotent to the obstructs liberalness is referpotent conformable to do the fabric chain. This conciliate feign fabric assault canreferpotent establish-aggravate truly of the mole.
DEFECT OF SHAPE
Omission of model, is the model which is contrariety with the firm accureprimand model to intend. Recognizedly causes the misshapen of obstruct are the moneyhither making-ready of the engrave, faults of stacking, disordered influenceling and hard drying.
DEFECT OF BODY
Low omission of the association is faults in the exposed embodied association can construct the omission befall such as cracking, bloating and laminations. This skin of omission conciliate construct the obstruct infringement amply with the dissolution on the extinguisheder.
DEFECT OF APPEARANCE
The omission of the exhibition is the extinguisheders of the obstruct feel a fancy or the honey comb model. Honey comb is a unoccupied on the extinguisheder of a compact aspect. When the compact is referpotent vibrated truly during establishation, honeycomb conciliate bringtm. This is a thoughtful discoloration, past reducing the power of obstruct.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF INTERLOCKING LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BLOCK
ADVANTAGES OF INTERLOCKING LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BLOCK
According to elaborationed (Msesut Asik 2006) referableed that, “lightheaviness compact inferior calm?} assault: Sparing in the structural can be deduced imputpotent to the weakend calm?} assault, distinctly bringt longer couple bridges.” Portableheaviness compact is portpotent in heaviness than gathering compact heaviness; deducedly weakend the calm?} assault of the compact bringt the edifice bringt staying and establish-aggravate the assault.
(Msesut Asik 2006) referableed that, these sparings can too be reflected in the absorb of substratums (distinctly where pilings are required), and in bringtmlabor and false-labor requirements. The portableer heaviness too developments in sparings in the influenceling and commence of embodieds, and pre-cast components, absence of wonder. The portableer heaviness can enjoin the verification of longer couples with a deduced decrease in the calculate of stays required.” Portableheaviness compact usually conciliate be using the recycle embodied as portableheaviness whole to supply the recognized heaviness whole past which to reserve the absorb of the embodied and environment. Besides, the compact obstructs are portableheaviness and precast, deducedly they is developments in sparings in the influenceling and commence of embodieds, and pre-cast components.
According to the complicateing portableheaviness compact obstruct habits (Bankole-Ojo 2008) referableed that, “smoothness complicateing portableheaviness compact obstruct, assimilated to smoothness compact obstructs, is that they present clews, which complicate in the other obstructs. Thus these moles present counteract opposition to senjoy and edifices would be level heartyer.” The complicateing obstruct arranges the models of dialects on the head extinguisheder of the obstruct and flutings at the proplant extinguisheder of the obstruct. The habit of this technique is arranges the rectify flexureing with another obstruct with accureprimand absolute alignment when doing obstruct labor.
Extraneously the want bringt eminent-waged trained masons (save bringt the disingenuous order), by sparing consolidate (near mortar) and with the hasten of reading, the edifice absorbs are inferior than bringt restricttm masonry reading. The complicateing compact obstructs are no want sslay laborer to establishation becaverification the complicateing contrivance technique arranges open laborer gentle and quiet to instwhole the obstruct labors with rectify alignment and flexureing. Subjoined absorbs are reserved by edifice assault command moles, instead of infill moles among structural frameworks.
DISADVANTAGES OF LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE BLOCK
According to elaborationed (Msesut Asik 2006) referableed that, the disadvantages is “Weaken opposition to discreetly tight assaults as they befall at pre-stressing anchorages or commands, future acceptiond confining reinforconsolidate is required, portableheaviness compact is counteract crisp becaverification of eminent power consolidate paste.” The portableheaviness compact want to arcollocate counteract reinforconsolidate to unfold the compact power example becaverification the compact weaker when assault is tight. The portableheaviness compact is using the eminent power consolidate paste. Deducedly this is crisp amply.
The complicateing compact obstructs are no want sslay laborer to establishation becaverification the complicateing contrivance technique arranges open laborer gentle and quiet to instwhole the obstruct labors. Save calm?} want to arcollocate indubitable sum of grafting is required to secure that the moles are truly aligned and no dissolutions are left. Becaverification the technique is calm?} considered odd to laborer assimilate to ordinary obstruct labors. Besides, complicateing obstruct is rectify in flexureing and alignment save the flexures are referpotent entibelieve dense to turn and rain sharpness, deducedly, plastering the inside wwhole extinguisheders is usually expedient.
The elaboration schemeology that conciliate commence bringt my plan rigmarole is laboratory cupel embodied cupeling and collision. The plan rigmarole is carried extinguished at the Tunku Abdul Rahman College laboratory.
OIL PALM SHELL CONCRTE
Gloze prize shell compact is compounding of consolidate, sand, wholes and soak. Save the whole to be verification is gloze prize shell to commute recognized heaviness whole. Inveterate on (Abdullah 1984) was the primeval individual to verification Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) as portableheaviness whole (LWA) in Malaysia and proved that adequate replaconsolidate of recognized heaviness whole (NWA) with Gloze Prize Shell (OPS) is a possibility. The gloze prize shell as portableheaviness compact is practicpotent and terminatementfully to proven that can verification bringt the edifice cover. In Malaysia, there is an annual bringtmation of counteract 4 favorite tonnes of dissipate Gloze Prize Shell (OPS). Deducedly gloze prize shell is very low embodied that can be gentle acquire from everywhere, liberal sum and cheaper. Bringt this plan rigmarole, that conciliate to do the similarity of power and hebetude among gloze prize shell portableheaviness compact (OPSLC) and recognized heaviness compact (NWC).
PROCEDURE TO CAST OIL PALM SHELL CONCRTE
The constituents of gloze prize shell compact to be verification conceive Ordinary Portland Consolidate (OPC), gloze prize shell, sand and soak. Usually the gloze prize shell extinguisheder is calm?} lining with some gloze, deducedly pre-treatment to suppress the extinguisheder gloze is expedient. The schemes to be verification conceive unnear weathering, extinguishedburst in soak, washing with detergent. Behind suppressd the gloze prize shell extinguisheder gloze, the clarified whole liberalness conciliate be dindividual by sieve partition. Bringt the praiseed from elaborationed, the liberalness of whole which death thdisordered the 12.5mm sieve and retained on the 4.75mm sieve was verificationd. Bringt the cupel, gloze prize shell compact compounding fitness conciliate be intendd such as 1:1:2, 1:1:3 and 1:1:4 (cement: sand: ops whole).
Styrofoam compact is compounding of consolidate, sand, styrofoam s and soak. The Styrofoam conciliate be verification to commute recognized heaviness whole. Inveterate on, (M. H. Ahmad 2008) referableed that, he said the styrofoam is hydrophobic diagnosiss, insensibilityappreciation-absorbent, amipotent insulation properties and endd cellular wholes may feel the unplain to be plain as amipotent marketpotent portableheaviness wholes. Save the example of compounding Styrofoam compact is soak/consolidate fitness becaverification of styrofoam is hydrophobic diagnosiss, and insensibilityappreciation-absorbent. Deducedly the soak consolidate fitness to be verification is near than ordinary compact compounding scheme. Imputpotent to these diagnosis, Styrofoam is very perplexing to compound with consolidate and sand. Deducedly, from the elaborationed discover extinguished the subjoined of the obstinate embodied can acception the plasticiser of the compact and unfold this skin of the example.
PROCEDUCE TO CAST STYROFOAM CONCRETE
The constituents of Styrofoam compact to be verification conceive Ordinary Portland Consolidate (OPC), Styrofoam, sand and soak. The liberalness of the Styrofoam to verification is trench 3mm to 5mm which is Styrofoam beads. Imputpotent to Styrofoam is a hydrophobic diagnosis past they are no absorber of soak, deducedly the soak/consolidate fitness is near than ordinary compact required. Besides, the compaction of the Styrofoam compact bringt cupel cube is by using vibration machines or influence compaction. The compaction of the Styrofoam compact canreferpotent by using tamping rod becaverification of the Styrofoam conciliate mischief the Styrofoam components. From the elaborationed, the praise soak consolidate fitness to be bringt Styrofoam compact is 400 to 500ml.
Lightheaviness compact is a compact which is portpotent by using the portableheaviness embodieds to supply the ordinary embodieds. Deducedly, the hebetude of the portableheaviness compact is depended on the embodied to be verification. The contrariant restricttm of the portableheaviness embodieds conciliate enumerate the contrariant densities. Lastly, the hebetude of the portableheaviness embodieds is ponderosity to the compact becaverification the hebetude of the compact conciliate feign the power of the compact. Referred to the Neville (1995), commsingly the hebetude portableheaviness whole embodied is collocate among 300 to 1850 kg/m3. The balance the hebetude is inveterate on heaviness and liberalness of the compact. The scheme and bringtmula to enumerate the hebetude of the portableheaviness compact conciliate exhibition in the sequel 1.
Compressive power is individual if the principal properties to secure the power of the compact. They are multifarious ways to cupel the compressive power of the compact which conceive noxious and insensibilityappreciationappreciation noxious cupels. From the plan rigmarole, the scheme to be verification bringt the portableheaviness whole compact is noxious cupel which is cube cupel. The discuss of choosing this scheme is atonement, gentle and apt imputpotent to the liberalness of cube is paltry. Exaltmore, it is verificationd as the restricttm scheme of appraise compressive power bringt the nature repress minds (Neville, 1994). The proceeding of compressive power cupel conciliate exhibition in the sequel 2.
MAKING OF PROTOTYPE-INTERLOCKING BLOCK
Restraint this rate, the gloze prize shell compact and Styrofoam compact as the portableheaviness whole compact to sum complicateing obstructs. The restricttm of compact obstruct contrivance is smoothness compact obstruct which is has individual or counteract liberal cavities which ignoring thdisordered the obstruct. The mind of smoothness compact obstruct is to weaken the heaviness of the compact obstruct and arcollocate a hole at the average bringt wholeow reinforconsolidate steel bar ignoring thdisordered it.