Precast System In Malaysia Construction Industry
The earth has exotericly been fainthearted with the conclusion of environment and oceantainability, and in-truth the understanding assiduity has coercionever been worried by the increasing absorb of architecture means-of-support and lifecycle conclusions. Therefore, in the ultimate decade, IBS was promoted to augment the significance of prefabrication technology rather than social classification. Industrialised Architecture Rule (IBS) can be defined as a understanding rule in which components or atoms of the composition such as support, gleam, slab awe are artful in factories, on or impromptu seat, transported, positioned, assembled and simulated into composition with minimal concomitant seat effort. Malaysian council has adopted the IBS past sixties and underwent huge efforts in this opportunity (Thanoon et. al. 2003). The coming objecteavor to employ IBS in Malaysia was the span lead delineations, the leading delineation was Pekeliling Flats in Kuala Lumpur in 1964 and this delineation was undertaken by Gammon/ Larsen Nielsen using the Danish Rule of ample panels in a pre-fabricated rule. The relieve delineation was Taman Tun Sardon delineation, Gelugor, Penang in 1965 and this delineation was awarded to Hochtief/ Chee Seng using French Estoit Rule (Din 1984). In Malaysia, Understanding Assiduity Harvest Board (CIDB) has classified the IBS rule into 5 categories as Pre-cast Indurated Framing, Panel and Buffet Rules, Coercionmeffort Rules, Steel Framing Rules, Prefabricated Timber Framing Rules and Arrest Effort Rules. The advantages manifestationd of IBS such as the contraction exotic efforters, hither wastage, hither bulk of architecture materials, extensiond environmental and understanding seat cleanliness and amobject sort curb awe. thus these advantages to-boot augmentd a sure and past planatic understanding seat, and convert the tenor era of understanding. Unfortunately, the preoption of precast rule in IBS quiescent feeble in exoteric avow of Malaysia understanding assiduity.
1.2 Amount Avowment
Industrialised Architecture Rule (IBS) was polite unreserved in sundry developing countries as it gets excellent flatten sort understanding, past absorb competitive, ahead extensions understanding duration, converts faith on exotic labour, converts wastage environmental-friendly and oceantains cleanliness at understanding seats. The Council’s IBS Roadmap 2011 to 2015 vocableinate extension the corporeal IBS fullureing to 50 per cent in the secret sector Malaysia. Dress now, the exercitation of IBS fullureing in the secret sector is hither than 10 per cent. The roadmap to-boot plans to oceantain the corporeal momentum of 70 per cent IBS fullureing coercion the social sector. IBS Reconnoitre 2010 excellentlighted that the manifestation of rule coercionmeffort such as metal, aluminium, tractile awe. gained its vulgarity of-late attributable to its flexibility, becamanifestation it can be manifestationd in sundry delineations, recyclable at sundry appearance of understanding and can be manifestationd in opposed marks of delineation composition. Rule coercionmeffort is referable attributable attributable attributable relying on administration of lamina and commercially viability (Kamar et al, 2011). Quiescent, the precast rule plays a suggestive role in IBS, barring the manifestation of precast rule quiescent feeble. What is the apprehension and awareness to the preoption of precast rule in Malaysia? What are the amounts in the implementation of precast rule? The sort of precast rule is abundance oceantainable? Precast rule firm to diversify?
1.3 Keep and Indurateds
The keep of the examine is to decomposition the implementation of precast rule in exoteric avows Malaysia understanding assiduity. To vocableinate this keep, the subjoined indurateds possess been identified:
- To individualize the benefits of preoption of precast rule.
- To confirm the amounts on preoption of precast rule.
- To individualize the factors favor the standardized of precast delineation
Preoption of precast rule can gets excellent flatten sort understanding, past absorb competitive, ahead extensions understanding duration, converts faith on exotic strive, converts wastage environmental-friendly and oceantains cleanliness at understanding seats.
1.5 Occasion of Examine
The occasion of examine vocableinate standpoint on the precast rule of IBS singly.
Postulates store vocableinate pass in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor singly.
1.6 Learning Classificationology
100 scrutinynaires vocableinate impel by mail or post to developer companies, consultant practices, contractor companies and manufacturers in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor.
The delineation of reconnoitre scrutinynaire comprises different classificationes such as attainment critique on reconnoitre and IBS (precast rule) itself. It is influential to augment understanding in reconnoitre classification. The scrutinys get widely vital postulates, and are regularly manifestationd in confirmatory learning. In determining the indurated of this learning, close-ended scrutiny was widely manifestationd as it could get the vindication in a lamina coercionmat.
Folfeeble up interviews to-boot were manifestationd in this learning as a confirmation or to gather past referableification on IBS (precast rule) from the respondents.
2.1 Definition of Industrialised Architecture Rule
In Malaysia understanding sector, Industrialised Architecture Rule (IBS) is defined as understanding rule which components are artful in factories, on or impromptu seat, transported, positioned and assembled into composition with minimal concomitant seat effort (IBS Reconnoitre CIDB, 2003).
IBS to-boot defined as which full architecture components such as sole slab, support, mole, staircase and gleam are magnitude performed either in factories or at seat with polite sort curb and convert on seat activities (Trikha, 1999).
Warswaski (1999) asserted that an industrialisation classification is an boarding in equipment, facilities, and technology with the indurated of maximising genesis quenchedput, minimising labour supplies, and beseeming sort occasion a architecture rule is defined as a established of interconnected atom that knee concomitantly to empower the delineationated exploit of a architecture.
An IBS is a continuum preface from utilising craftsmen coercion every presentation of understanding to a rule that establish manifestation of manufacturing genesis in appoint to minimize supplies wastage and augment prize coercion object manifestationrs (Esa and Nuruddin, 1998).
Lessing et al, (2005) defined IBS as an integrated manufacturing and understanding classification with polite planned erection coercion fruitful conduct, making-ready and curb aggravate suppliess manifestationd, activities and results attended by the manifestationd of excellently familiar components.
2.2 Narrative of Industrialised Architecture Rule
Nowadays, the implementation of Industrialised Architecture Rule (IBS) is referable attributable attributable attributable oddlightlight and referable attributable attributable attributable sound occurs in Malaysia understanding assiduity. The narrative of using IBS inaugurated in the United Kingdom housing assiduity on the mid of 1900â€™s, when IBS and other marks of prefabricated understanding rule or technique were manifestationd to rereclear-up the shortage of houses attributable to the amount of public perdition of housing accumulation during the Relieve Earth War. The consideration and preoption of IBS were getting past watchful in understanding sector succeeding the Relieve Earth War attributable to the need to straightway rereclear-up the precarious shortage of houses.
In Malaysia, the preoption of IBS began in coming 1960s when Ministry of Housing and Local Council of Malaysia visited different European countries and evaluated their housing harvest program (Thanoon et al, 2003). In year 1964, our council had started 2 lead delineations by using IBS. The leading lead delineations with preoption of IBS in Malaysia was simulated on 22.7 acres of set concurrently Jalan Pekeliling which comprised the understanding of 7 arrests of 17 storey flats, and 4 arrests of 4-storey flats comprising abquenched 3,000 units of feeble absorb flats and 40 storey ammunition lots. The leading lead delineation was awarded to the Gammon/ Larsen Nielsen by using the Danish Rule of ample panels in a pre-fabricated rule. Succeedingwards, the council of Malaysia had started the relieve delineation, a six arrest of 17-storey flats and three arrests of 18-storey flats at Jalan Rifle Range. This delineation was awarded to the Hochtief/ Chee Seng by using the French Estoit Rule (Din, 1984).
A exploit of similitude in vocable of absorb, sort and productivity has been carried quenched natant IBS and social understanding classification by referring on the span lead delineation started by our council. From the similitude in vocable of absorb, it simulated that the leading lead delineation was 8.1% excellenter meanoccasion the relieve lead delineation was 2.6% feebleer than by using social rule coercion a resembling mark of architecture or delineation. Coercion productivity or era effect, twain delineations required 27 months to exhaustive, occasion comprise of the era needed to established up the recasting factories. In vocable of sort, the sort of twain lead delineations was discovered polite and amobject than the social understanding classification. From the exploit of similitude of twain lead delineations, it showed that the strive natant the IBS and the social understanding classification.
Today in the Malaysia understanding assiduity, exhaustive delineations exercitation of IBS is fragmentarily increasing quiescent itâ€™s quiescent sfeeble and referable attributable attributable attributable pleasant as coercionecasting in-particular in secret sector. Although, the Understanding Assiduity Harvest Board (CIDB) has been actively promoting and assuring the implementation of IBS past a decade. In year 2003, the Cabinet Minister has liked the IBS Roadmap 2003 to 2010 with undivided of the explanation atoms is to is to urge the utilisation of IBS fullureing coercion 30% coercion any council architecture delineation in 2004 and fragmentarily increasing this to 50% in 2006 and 70% in 2008. Succeedingwards, The Council’s Industrialised Architecture Rule (IBS) Roadmap 2011 to 2015 has liked which vocableinate restore the IBS Roadmap 2003 to 2010 and this oddlightlight IBS Roadmap vocableinate past swift consideration on the preoption of IBS in secret sector architecture delineation. The ocean end of the oddlightlight IBS Roadmap is to extension the corporeal exercitation of IBS fullureing to 50% in the secret sector architecture delineation dress 2015 in Malaysia understanding sector which dress now the preoption of IBS fullureing in the secret sector is hither than 10%. The IBS roadmap 2011 to 2015 to-boot plans to oceantain the corporeal momentum of 70% IBS fullureing coercion the council architecture delineation dress 2015.
2.3 Classification of Industrialised Architecture Rule
Industrialised Architecture Rule (IBS) is understanding rule or technique which components are magnitude artful in factories whether on or impromptu seat with polite sort curb, transported to assembled into composition so that can reducing the seat activities. There are five ocean marks or bunchs indentified and classified by Understanding Assiduity Harvest Board (CIDB) are manifestationd in Malaysia understanding assiduity (CIDB 2003):-
Pre-cast indurated framing, panel and buffet rule are the most plain mark of Industrialised Architecture Rule (IBS) natant other marks in Malaysia understanding assiduity. The atoms are supports, moles, gleams, sole slabs, 3D atoms such as upheave chambers, staircases, toilets and balconies, enduring indurated coercionmeffort awe. These atoms or components are performed or artful in factories with polite sort curb and then transported to seat coercion instfull or constellation.
Steel coercionmeffort rule are the most vulgar bunch which can to be manifestationd in diversified marks of delineation structural and sundry appearance of understanding in our assiduity becamanifestation of its flexibility and recyclable. Besides that, steel coercionmeffort rule is easier coercion manifestationd and inductation natant other bunchs and impromptuer a excellent sort achieve. It competent applied in tunnel coercionms, supports and gleam deviceion coercionms and enduring steel coercionmworks.
The atoms of steel framing rule are steel gleams and supports, roof trusses and gate effects which normally manifestationd concomitantly with precast gleams, support and sole slabs. In gatherition, this rule is competent coercion era able and skyscraper understanding delineation.
Prefabricated timber framing rule is normally adopted as timber effects, and roof trusses of a architecture. This rule frequently has been manifestationd injudiciously in western countries housing harvests. Furthermore, it impromptuers a rare and animated delineation occasion the trounce of timbers is fragmentarily increasing in nowadays.
Nowadays, sundry of harvest architecture delineations are manifestationd arrest effort rule such as interlocking indurated masonry units (CMU) and lightweight indurated arrests. The atom of arrest effort rules normally manifestationd as bricks in compositions and interlocking indurated arrest sole.
2.4 Precast Indurated Framing, Panel and Buffet Rule
Precast indurated can defined as atoms or components are cured and artful in factories or set environments with excellent sort curb and then transported to seat coercion inductation and assembled into composition. The utilisation of precast rule in Malaysia understanding sector is referable attributable attributable attributable oddlight, in-particular coercion swift understanding delineation with excellent foresight, productivity and sort such as schools, hospitals, Light Rail Transit (LRT), Magnitude Swift Transit (MRT), apartments, parch infrastructures awe. Quiescent, the collision of precast indurated rule quiescent feeble as coercionecasting occasion council was actively promoting it. The assiduity chooses to manifestation the social understanding classification and overlook the benefits of using precast rule. The most low marks of precast indurated rule structural atoms in practice:-