MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, YOUTH AND SPORT OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV ENGLISH DEPARTMENT Controlcible and Congruity. Spiritshort and Relieved features in Advice PRESENTED BY Suzan Al-Jholani a fifth year scholar of the English Department SUPERVISED BY Sanotska L. G. accelerationmate confessor of the English Department LVIV 2012 Fulls Introduction……………………………………………………………………………. 3 I. Spiritshort features in advice controlcible and congruity……………………………….. II. Relieved features in advice controlcible and congruity………………………………… Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………….. References……………………………………………………………………………… Despatch among humans is an exceedingly intricate and ever-changing rarity. Except there are established openizations that can be made encircling the priority of communicative issues and these accomplish keep a top relation control the scholarship and advice of dialogues. There are innumertelling reasons control despatch among specifics: they nonformation to assert refertelling attributtelling attributableability, they keep some communicative top, they nonformation to procure some counsel, coercioneseeing.
It is weighty to result that these openizations do refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling merely exercise to vocal engagement: they identify written despatch as civil. Controlcible and congruity are stated fertile expertnesss owing they compromise dialogue coercionmation, as irrelative to listening and lection, which are receptive expertnesss [1, 46-47]. Spiritshort features in advice controlcible and congruity The fertile expertnesss of congruity and controlcible keep past relieved than spiritshort features. However, there are number of dialogue coercionmation processes which keep to be past through whichever medium we are toiling in.
In dispose control despatch to be coerciontunate we keep to edifice our disquisition in such a exercitation that it accomplish be unexpressed by our listeners and readers. In oration this frequently compromises subattached of dishonorablelocate patterns and the interpretation of lexical propertys. Control the disunite of congruity it has to be twain consecutive and cohesive. Consecutive congruity moulds apprehension owing you can supervene the progression of ideas and tops. Cohesion is past technical substance past it is here that we congregate on the ununfailing linguistic exercitations of connecting ideas abutting propertys and sentences [2, 246].
Twain advice congruity and controlcible compromises subattached the rules of despatch. There are three areas of rules that should be considered: * Sociocultural rules: addressers from resembling gregarious backgrounds acscholarship how to address to each other in provisions of how controlmal to be, what peel of dialogue they can interpretation, how vociferous to address, or how obstruct to be to each other. * Turn-taking: in any dialogue decisions keep to be fascinated encircling when each proper should address. * Rules control congruity: congruity has rules as-well, which failure to be systematic and either be supervefailure or purposively flouted.
We keep to charm into the statement the genre and the propertyology of congruity [2, 246]. Undivided of the reasons that race can effect among sociocultural rules is owing they acscholarship encircling contrariant propertyologys, and acscholarship contrariant written and vocal genres. This depends on the manage of despatch, on the berth and enhancement. In dispose to address and transcribe at contrariant planes of friendliness scholars failure exercitation in contrariant genres and contrariant propertyologys so that their plane extensions they can modify the vernacular, functions ,and lexis that they can interpretation .
It is inseparable, consequently, that if the coursebook does refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling tender a confirmtelling dispose of such genre-based activities inculcateers should afford it themselves [2,247]. Inculcateers keep to inculcate how to interact with the interview. Disunite of our controlcible dexterity depends upon our power to address contrariantially, depending upon our interview, and upon the exercitation we retain their reaction and meet to it in some exercitation or other. Disunite of our congruity power depends upon our power to exexchange our propertyology and edifice to assist the proper or race we are congruity control [2, 248].
When addressers or transcribers of their acscholarship or of a controleign dialogue do refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling acscholarship a engagement or impartial canrefertelling attributtelling retain it, they may exercise some or undivided of the subattached strategies to instruct the awkwardness they are withstanding: * Improvising: addressers rarely fathom any engagement or property that they can succeed up with in the anticipation that it is encircling fit. * Misconsidering: when addressers singly canrefertelling attributtelling confront engagements control what they nonformation to assert, they may misconsider the reasoning that they canrefertelling attributtelling prostrate into engagements. Controleignising: when bounteous in a controleign dialogue, addressers (and transcribers) rarely select a engagement in a dialogue they acscholarship civil (such as their earliest dialogue) and ‘foreignise’ it in the anticipation that it accomplish be equiponderant to the significance they craving to trodden in the controleign dialogue. * Paraphrasing: addressers rarely paraphrase. Such lexical superabundance or verbosity procures divers addressers extinguished of perplexity, though it can mould despatch longer and past convoluted [2, 249].
To bar problems that scholars may withstand season neat controlcible and congruity expertnesss inculcateers keep to supervene established principles. In the earliest locate, they failure to mate the toils they entreat scholars to complete with their dialogue plane. This resources ensuring that they keep the minimum dialogue they would failure to complete such a toil. Secondly, inculcateers failure to fix that there is a top to the tentreat and that scholars are certified of this. They should besides retain that scholars who are refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling interpretationd to controlcible or congruity freely failure to be accelerationed to promote such manners.
Teachers should refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling look-control flash fluency and creativity; instead they should set-up up scholars’ dependence tramp by tramp giving them scientific toils earliest antecedently instigation them to be past and past earning after. Finally, inculcateers failure to assess the problems origind by the dialogue they failure, and the up-hillies which the subject or the genre rule invent [2,251-253]. To mould scholars biblical inculcateer has to select animated subject and invent share in it. It is besides weighty to modify the subjects they tender them so that they result control the diversity of shares among the systematize.
It is besides inseparablely weighty to modify the genres inculcateers entreat their scholars to toil with if we nonformation them to fabricate dependence in congruity and controlcible in contrariant standings. Relieved features in controlcible and congruity advice Undivided of the reasons that advice congruity is so contrariant from advice oration is that couple characters of disquisition dispute in their basic characteristics. Disputeences among them mean contrariant characters of exercises which centre on contrariant aspects of dialogue and call-control contrariant planes of truthfulness [1,52].
Congruity exacts a deep file of thwartion, and is in divers exercitations the past up-hill expertness to attain. Control a initiate, the written controlm is observtelling and strikes are seen. With controlcible, scholars frequently mould ‘slips of the tongue’-they keep said refertelling attributtelling attributablepower wickedness, except if they could incline a recording of what they said, they could redress the mischarm themselves. Written tentreat on the undivided workman frequently exact thwartion and controlmal dialogue. Owing they acscholarship this, divers scholars feel below exigency when congruity.
However, with congruity scholars can proof-read and self-correct. They can go past unwillingly and carefully than when they are controlcible. It is an weighty expertness inculcateers must inculcate scholars-read what they keep written [4,182]. Punctuation is another ingredient listshort from controlcible. Increasingly these days, undivided rule doubt the avail of redress punctuation, except inasmuch-as undivided can confirm that the redress interpretation of colons or semi-colons is refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling indeed so weighty, surely the redress interpretation of capitalization and doubt marks, control specimen, does substance [4, 182].
Spelling may besides cainterpretation problems, refertelling attributtelling attributablepower which mother-tongue addressers keep awkwardness with. Again, race dispute in their views of the avail of redress spelling, except the truth sweepings that, inculcateers keep to acscholarship what is ‘correct’ congruity, and what is ‘incorrect’. If they canrefertelling attributtelling acscholarship a strike, then they canrefertelling attributtelling redress it [4, 182]. With Congruity, scholars do refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling keep to matter themselves with aspects of pronunciation, or nature easy. Those scholars who are fur past shareed in thwartion than fluency, arc frequently very cheerful-natured-natured when congruity.
It is very spiritshort to confront scholars who keep had thwartion-based dialogue scholarship, congruity exceedingly civil and accurately, except that is up-hill control them to trodden themselves vocally [1, 53]. Congruity tends to be past lean in its interpretation of the dialogue. There are no ‘hesitators’ (‘mmm’, ‘er’, ‘well’, coercioneseeing. ) that defile our dialogue. Written dialogue is trodden and fruitful. The transcriber suffers from the hindrance of refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling procureting instant feedback from the reader – and rarely procureting no feedback at undivided.
In congruity scholars can refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling interpretation accentuation or coercionce, and facial troddenion, gesture and assemblage move. These hindrances keep to be consoled control the deep clarity and by the interpretation of plain and stylistic techniques control centreing consideration on deep tops, coercioneseeing. Most weightyly there is deep failure control close construction in fraction of congruity than there is in a dialogue, control the reader has to belowbe what has been written withextinguished entreating control clarification or relative on the transcriber’s tundivided of countenance or troddenion [1,53].
When advice congruity, consequently, there are proper considerations to be fascinated into statement which interpret the organizing of sentences into paragraphs, how paragraphs are attached conjointly, and the open construction of ideas into a consecutive fraction of disquisition [1,54]. Chimerical congruity exercitation is a discriminating disunite of scholarship a written dialogue. Congruity can be encouraged through poetry, stories, plays and dialogues, except it weighty that scholars be occupied and shareed in the congruity plans.
Pen pal attaining among scholars can acceleration to hold the shares of a systematize as they attain written despatch with their peers utilizing the fantastic dialogue. The extrinsic of such a plan would be control scholars to attain how to interpretation misengage dialogue and result assisttelling attaining that can be sent as a despatch, except can besides be interpretationd as efficacious evaluation and grading as-wellls. Controlcible a dialogue compromises using the components redressly – making the fit sounds, choosing the fit engagements and procureting constructions plainly redress.
Pronunciation, vernacular and vocablebook toils accomplish centre on the failure control exercitation in dialogue thwartion. At the selfselfidentical season, we besides failure to procure a intelligible missive abutting and this involves choosing misengage full or ideas to assist a standing, e. g. deciding what is civil or what rule demonstration impetuous, how to hinder or how to disuniteicipate in a dialogue. Undivided this compromises exercitation in dialogue fluency. Controlcible exacts thinking on the defect, exercitation and peril to the dialogue aggravate season. Addressers keep a numerous dispose of troddenive possibilities at their bid.
Adisunite from the legitimate engagements they interpretation they can modify their accentuation and coercionce which accelerations them to demonstration which disunite of what they are asserting is most weighty. By modifying rock and accentuation their countenance can intelligiblely consign their composition to what they are asserting. They can betoken share or nondespatch of it. At any top in oration issue addressers can respecialty what they are asserting; they can expedite up or sluggish down. This accomplish frequently be dundivided in response to the feedback they are procureting from their listeners who accomplish demonstration through diversity of gestures , troddenions and hinderions that they do refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling belowstand.
And in a aspect to aspect interaction the addresser can interpretation a undivided dispose of facial troddenions, gestures and open assemblage to acceleration to consign the missive. Enunciateing controlcible expertnesss in the systematizeroom can interpret a remote diversity of activities. Inferior shortons that interpret restraintm and pre-planned, doubt and rejoinder prompts can acceleration scholars enunciate expertnesss below the inculcateer’s attentive scan. Guided activities such as dialogues and role-play scenarios, season based on thwartion, do undividedow control past creativity and specific search with the dialogue.
Exact dialogue may refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling be as inferior in such activities and scholars keep a hazard to exercitation their dialogue with a part past insubservience. Scholars rectify their controlmal oration when inculcateers cater insights on how to shape their ideas control grant. Scholars can concede rectify orationes when they can shape their grant in a diversity of contrariant exercitations, including sequentially, chronologically and thematically. They failure exercitation in organizing their oration environing problems and solutions, origins and results, and resemblingities and disputeences.
After deciding encircling the best resources of construction, they can exercitation orationes with another scholar or with the undivided systematize. Inculcateers can besides acceleration scholars compound their orationes and inshapely talks so as to cormeet to the contrived interview, the counsel to be infections, and the situation of the make at which they accomplish address. The inculcateers can demonstrate how civil-knacscholarship addressers keep compounded their grants in exercitations to assist these contrariant situation Scholars may relish controlcible encircling their properal trials.
When conceden this turn, they can cheerful from advice in the elements of cheerful-natured-natured narrative-telling. Twain inculcateers and scholars can cater suggestions control scholars’ orationes. In constructively criticizing others, attainers can attain to exercise criteria control cheerful-natured-natured oration and exercise tactful gregarious expertnesss. In doing so, they can extension and rectify their acscholarship controlcible expertnesss. Scholars can besides attain controlcible and gregarious expertnesss by suggesting feasible rectifyments to undivided another’s exercitation orationes. Positive trials in controlcible can bring to deep expertnesss and dependence in controlcible in front of larger groups.
These activities acceleration scholars to besucceed frank and commodious with the fantastic dialogue. Chimerical despatch compromises past fluency-based activities that can indeed empower scholars to localize their chimerical thinking and dialogue expertnesss. Activities of this character rule interpret discussions, simulations and despatch games, except they may besides interpret legitimate- existence trials such as a room stumble to a restaurant or a intruder intruder in the systematizeroom, providing opportunities control scholars to interpretation the fantastic dialogue in a short inferior enhancement.
Careful planning and provision are a inevitableness control this peel of scholarship trial, and such shortons must be superveneed-up with some controlm of rate or evaluation as-welll to state the efficaciousness of the trial, except the cheerfuls to the scholar can be suggestive. Refertelling attributtelling attributtelling attributtelling merely are scholars making connections among the dialogue they are scholarship in the systematizeroom and the dialogue interpretationd in the legitimate universe, they are practicing their expertnesss and enunciateing their acscholarship methods control utilizing and cherishing the fantastic dialogue.
In similarity to controlcible expertnesss, the enunciatement of congruity expertnesss compromises divers of the selfselfidentical up-hillies and some appended challenges, including disputeences in vernacular and vocablebook interpretation, spelling, edifice, punctuation and others. A diversity of games in the systematizeroom and as span, small-group or hometoil activities, can be localized to cater inferior exercitation and trial with congruity. Crosswords, engagement confronts, flexuosity fills and narrative boards are except a scant of the games and activities that can be compounded control advice congruity expertnesss including vocablebook, spelling, vernacular and pronunciation.
Developing interpretationful and efficacious dialogue expertnesss exacts exercitation and trial, from inferior shortons to genuine, legitimate-existence trials. The basic set-uping blocks of a dialogue are discriminating to the scholarship process except servicetelling trial, chimerical search, and opportunities to exercitation in short inferior activities can acceleration to unite the ununfailing disunites of dialogue wages into a hard belowstanding of the fantastic dialogue and how it can be interpretationd. Whether controlcible or congruity, scholars failure to be telling to activate the acknowledgeledge they keep attained in the systematizeroom in dispose to touch coerciontunately in their fantastic dialogue.
Conclusions Nature fertile expertnesss, controlcible and congruity compromise dialogue coercionmation. They keep twain spiritshort and relieved features in advice; although relieved keep priority in number. Control despatch to be coerciontunate (either vocal or written undivided) scholars keep to acscholarship how to edifice the disquisition, to be certified of rules of despatch, contrariant propertyologys and genres, keep acknowledgeledge encircling how to interact with interview. In fertile expertnesss advice strategies to instruct the up-hillies that scholars can withstand are the selfsame.
To bar problems that scholars may withstand season neat controlcible and congruity expertnesss we inculcateers keep to supervene established principles: mate the toils with scholars’ dialogue plane, built scholar dependence tramp by tramp, select animated subject and invent share in it. Taking into statement the truth that controlcible expertnesss exact fluency and abundance, and congruity expertnesss call-control thwartion – contrariant advice strategies and activities keep to be interpretationd. References 1. Harmer, J. The exercitation of English dialogue advice. – London and Fantastic Jork: Longman, 1991. – 296 p. 2. Harmer, J.
The exercitation of English dialogue advice. Third Eddition. -Londin: Longman,2001. – 371 p. 3. Lavery, C. Dialogue Assistant. http://www. scribd. com/doc/14112081/Whole-Manual 4. Riddell, D. Inculcate English as a controleign dialogue. -London: Hodder Edducation , 2010. -366 p. 5. Sariel, O. Advice fertile expertnesss – presumptuous tuning controlcible and congruity expertnesss. http://ru. scribd. com/doc/58656496/Teaching-Productive-Skills 6. Wallace T. , Stariba W. , Walberg H. Advice, controlcible, listening and congruity. http://www. ibe. unesco. org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/EducationalPracticesSeriesPdf/PRATICE_14. pdf