Technology of Ultrasound Scans

2.1 Ultrasound

2.1.1 Physics of Ultrasound

Gauge is a spontaneous prosper that migrations through an resilient average. Ultragauge (US) is gauge at a abundance gone-by 20 000 Hz, the expression of civilized hearing. Bats orientate themselves with the acceleration of US prospers at 100 000 Hz. Ultragauge at frequencies of 200 000 Hz is conservationd tranquillityraint navigation. The abundance class of sign US is betwixt 1 and 20 MHz.

When gauge engagements a epoch betwixt brace media of opposed densities some of the gauge bounces end as an imitation, a wonder denominated cogitation. The tranquillity of the gauge continues through the average yet is deflected from its primitive road, this is denominated disradiation. Vibratory impedance is the hindrance of a average to the propagation of gauge and decides how fur gauge gain be reflected at the intercountenance betwixt the media. Some of the intelligence of the gauge is converted by contiguity into ardor when propagating, this damage of intelligence is denominated aridity.

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When ultragauge prospers engagement a deportment, a inweighty dissect of their intelligence is detached aremote in purposeshort bearings spaceliness most of the gauge continues to increase, a wonder denominated disseminate. Cogitation, disradiation, impedance, aridity and disseminate are completion phenomena influential tranquillityraint effigy tranquillityraintmation in sign ultragauge conservation. Artifacts, imitationes that do referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent suit to an anatomic building yet pi from the uniformtual justties of ultragauge propagation in the organizations, are to-boot influential to be apprised of when using ultrasound. This wonder can to-boot be of sign acceleration. Undivided product is the vibratory shadowing of a gallstone, objectd by completion aridity of the gauge by the stone.

Sign ultragauge is urban on the pulse-imitation doctrine. The insignificantest negotiative units of the transducer are the piezoelectric crystals. The crystals are embedded in the silt, and each crystal has a specific abundance. A pulse is initiated from each crystal in the silt and a hankeritudinal gauge prosper increases through the collection. Some of the intelligence is astounded in the organization and some is reflected. The reflected intelligence is sordid by the silt, which calculates the profoundness of the intercountenance by measuring the space charmed to revert.

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We can recite that the civilized collection is tight of three basic materials differing in vibratory impedance: mist with a very subsided impedance, annoyance with a very excellent impedance and tender organization with an impedance somewhere in betwixt. The comprehensive mismatch betwixt disembodiment and annoyance and organization (“impedance mismatch”) objects 100% of the gauge to be reflected at disembodiment/organization interfaces and almost completion the gauge at annoyance/organization interfaces. There is a inweighty mismatch betwixt opposed tender organizations in impedance, a deed that is the premise tranquillityraint sign ultrasound.

Opposed frequencies of ultragauge are conservationd tranquillityraint opposed sign trials. Excellenter US frequencies (7-16 MHz) entertain excellenter unravelling yet are soundly astounded by tender organization and are hence conservationd tranquillityraint external buildings. Very excellent frequencies (16- 20 MHz) gain bahope migration tranquillityraint a reviewt millimeters amid organization and are expressioned to intravascular and visible trials. Subsideder frequencies (3-7 MHz) are conservationd tranquillityraint deeper buildings, life short soundly astounded and of subsideder unravelling.

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There are opposed enactments of evinceing the repletion of reflected gauge prospers: A- enactment, M-enactment and B-mode. A-enactment (amplitude) calculates bahope the profoundness of the intercountenance and is largely of truthful profit. M-enactment (motion) is conservationd to evince melting buildings and is conservationd in cardiac ultrasound. B-enactment (brightness) is the reversion US effigy tranquillityraint most surgical collisions. Here the reverting imitationes are evinceed as shades of grey with the imitation repletions represented by a grey flatten ranging from ebon to colorless. The personal effigy lines are stored, assessed and assembled on the warner to educe a brace-dimensional B-enactment effigy.

Doppler ultragauge conservations the Doppler pi. When US is reflected from a melting building (i.e. lineage) the frequencies of the prospers qualify and the aggregate of abundance qualify is unshaken by the press and bearing of lineage run. The conservation of Doppler is apparent in vascular US yet is to-boot of conservation in other areas of sign ultrasound.

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2.1.2 History of Ultrasound

Scientists, including Aristoteles, Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac Fantasticton and Leonard Euler, entertain been considering the phenomena of vibratorys, imitationes and gauge prospers tranquillityraint abundant centuries. It was though referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent until 1877 that John Gainiam Strutt, to-boot knaccept as Lord Rayleigh, published a name of gauge as a unpoetical equation in “The speculation of gauge” which became the establishment tranquillityraint the expertness of ultrasound. Some years after, 1880, Jaques and Pierre Curie discovered the piezo-electric pi; that an electric implicit is generated when spontaneous constraining is applied to a quartz crystal, an influential clue that nevertheless led to the product of the enactmentrn- day ultragauge transducer which contains piezoelectric crystals.

The primitive consider of the collision of ultragauge as a medical sign utensil was published by the Austrian brothers Karl and Friedrich Dussik in 1942. They attempted to establish brain tumours and the cerebral ventricles by measuring ultragauge transmission through the skull and concluded that if imaging of the ventricles was potential, the inland of the civilized collection could to-boot be visualized using ultrasound. Unfortunately it was after unshaken by Guttner, in 1952, that the effigys manufactured by the Dussiks were variations in annoyance animalism. Nevertheless, their philosophical exertion referablepotent the quenchedset of sign ultrasonography in the medical opportunity and Dussik wrote in an era a decade after: ”As knife and tranquillityraintceps in surgery, the chemical commissioner in chemotherapy, the excellent abundance electric opportunity in diathermy and X-ray collision, so has therapeutics charmed on a fantastic uniformtual utensil in the decisive decade: the ultrasonic opportunity”.

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George Döring Ludwig, exertioning concurrently with Francis Struther, was the primitive student to visualize gallstones, implanted in the muscles and gallbladders of dogs, with ultrasound. His studies to-boot pied in the judgment that the sequenceration speed of ultragauge in tender organization is 1540 m/sec, a clue that was to verify very influential tranquillityraint coercionthcoming lore. Fur of his exertion was thus-remote considered tranquillityricted recognition, becaconservation he was occupied by the soldierly, and hence referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent published in medical journals.

John Julian Wild and Douglass Howry were to-boot influential pioneers in the ultragauge opportunity. Wild was a surgeon who was potent to visualize bowel wcompletion animalism with ultrasound, and he to-boot discovered a contrariety in imitationgenicity betwixt merciful and noxious organization. Wild to-boot patent clear transrectal and transvaginal transducers and a reviewning expedient tranquillityraint screening resigneds tranquillityraint confront cancer. Howry built the primitive B- enactment reviewner in 1949 and, concurrently with the brace engineers Bliss and Posanky, he to-boot patent clear the primitive direct contiguity reviewner. The somascope, the primitive circumferential reviewner, built in 1954, was to-boot patent clear by Howry. The problem with these reviewners was that the resigned had to be immobilized and immersed tranquillityraint a hanker space. In the epoch 1957-58 an ultragauge reviewner was patent clear by Howry and his colleagues where the resigned was strapped to the pliant window of a semicircular pan employed with distinguished disentanglement. Although referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent immersed, the resigned had quiet to be immobilized tranquillityraint a hanker space. Finally, in the managethcoming 1960s, Howry patent clear the primitive operative-held contiguity reviewner, concurrently with Wright and E Myers.

During the corresponding space Ian Donald was carrying quenched ultragauge lore in England and 1958 he published an era that came to be a landmark, (“Investigation of abdominal lumpes by pulsed ultrasound”), where he describes how ultragauge qualifyd the treatment of a mother diagnosed with slowly misttric cancer dramatically by diagnosing a cystic lump with ultrasound; the lump was after resected and establish to be a merciful ovarian cyst. Donald contributed weightyly to the opportunity of obstetric and gynecological ultragauge tranquillityraint product by discovering the urinary bladder to be a uniformtual vibratory window tranquillityraint the pelvic organs and by measuring the biparietal crossing of the fetus tranquillityraint the primitive space.

A eldership antecedent the Doppler pi had been discovered by the glorious Austrian student Christian Andreas Doppler and presented in 1842 in a tract denominated “Über das remotebige Licht der Doppelsterne und einiger anderer Gestirne des Himmels” (“On the colored imponderous of the wrap stars and sure other stars of the heavens”). In Lund, Sweden, the primary pioneers of imitationcardiography Inge Edler and Carl Hellmuth Hertz, patent clear the primitive imitationcardiogram in October 195323 . Subsequently Hertz and Åsberg invented the primitive brace-dimensional genuine-space cardiac imaging instrument 1967 and Edler and Lindström registred the primitive concomitant M-enactment and intracardiac Doppler lineage fsubsided recordings at abquenched the corresponding space.

Ultragauge has in the decisive decades patent clear immediately and the primitive digital reviewners were released onto the chaffer in 1976, providing rectify and reproducible effigys.

Interventional ultrasonography dates end to 1969 when Kratochgain projected the conservation of ultragauge tranquillityraint percutaneous drainage. Regarding ultragauge tranquillityraint trauma the primitive declaration of the jurisdiction tranquillityraint evaluating numb trauma was dated 1971, by Kristenson in Germany.

The product is quiet going on and in the imponderous of advances in technology imported to insignificanter availpotent instruments wholly with the prices of instruments decreasing rapidly speculations entertain been made abquenched the possibility that doctors in the coercionthcoming gain reversionly be equipped with their accept ultragauge stethoscope tranquillityraint conservation in their daily clinical exertion.

2.1.3 Ultragauge Instruments

It is influential to entertain a basic recognition in which an ultragauge effigy is manufactured. The components of reviewner involve

  1. Transmitter: Emits electrical impulses that stamp the transducer piezoelectric crystals and caconservation them to oscildelayed thus unresisting ultragauge prosper.
  2. Transducer: Transducer is undivided which converts undivided tranquillityraintm of intelligence to another. In ultragauge it converts electric intelligence to spontaneous intelligence and viceversa. It converts the electrical intelligence granted by the transmitter to the vibratory pulses directed into the resigned. It serves as the receiver of reflected imitationes, converting infirm constraining qualifys into electric remarkables tranquillityraint processing.
  3. Receiver: When reverting imitationes stamp the transducer countenance,detailed voltages are manufactured counter the piezoelectric elements. The receiver detects and amplifies these infirm remarkables and yields a sequencerations tranquillityraint protecting tranquillityraint the contrarietys in imitation power which pi from leanness by opposed organization animalism by manage of space profoundness remuneration. Another influential administration of receiver is the compression of the broad class of repletions reverting to the transducer into a class that can be evinceed to the conservationr.
  4. Reobject Processor: Processor detects and amplifies the end detached intelligence and manipulates the reflected remarkables tranquillityraint evince.
  5. Manage Console
  6. Display: Evince presents the ultragauge effigy or axioms in a tranquillityraintm suitpotent tranquillityraint dissection and sense. Aggravate the years imaging has evolved from pure A enactment evince to excellent unravelling genuine space silvery flake imaging.
  7. Recording Expedient: Sense of effigys and archival storage of effigys may be in the tranquillityraintm of transparencies printed on film by optical or laser cameras and printers, videotape or through conservation of digital draw archiving and communications plan (PACS). Increasingly digital storage is life conservationd tranquillityraint archiving of ultragauge effigys.

2.1.4 Transabdominal Ultrasound, Conservation and Expressionations

Transabdominal ultragauge of the effeminate pelvis has been the social access in imaging of the effeminate pelvis. With this access) a generous urinary bladder is required to yield a window tranquillityraint imaging and to dislodge bowel mist. Transabdominal reviewning (TAS) hence required deeper acuteness and a subsideder abundance transducer, usually 3 -5 MHz, must be conservationd. The unravelling of effigys is expressioned by the not attributable attributable-absolutely subsideder abundance transducer that is required, and it to-boot has exalted expressionations in the brawny lady, in-particular in the old who frequently canreferpotent attributpotent attributpotent obstruct a generous bladder. In the consider of uterine hemodynamics in resigneds who are fraught, these accelerationlessnesss may referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent be very weighty, becaconservation the uterine arterial remarkable from these resigneds are usually sound. Thus-far, in the non-fraught declare, in-particular in postmenopausal ladies, studies of uterine hemodynamics with TAS could be very involved.

2.1.5 Transvaginal Ultrasound, Advantages and Accelerationlessnesss

Widespread availability of ultragauge imaging in the gone-by brace decades has dramatically qualifyd the exercitation of obstetrics and gynecology. These extraordinaryists hope heavily upon this technology to reach surpassing decisions abquenched administration of their resigneds.

Transabdominal sonography (TAS) effigys the pelvic organs through the previous abdominal wcompletion in the supra-pubic territory. A grandiloquent urinary bladder is inherent to dislodge the bowel loops and to yield an vibratory window. There are brace surpassing expressionations of TAS. Primitive is the need to conservation subsideder frequencies tranquillityraint imaging imputable to the hankerer remoteness betwixt the transducer and the pelvic organs. Other accelerationlessness is the radiate quenchedrageous pi of the previous abdominal wcompletion in-particular in brawny resigneds. Both these expressionations control to deprivation in effigy character.

To subimputable these expressionations of TAS extraordinary transducers, which could be introduced in the vagina, were adapted in 1985. The vaginal access reduces the remoteness betwixt the silt and the pelvic buildings completionowing the conservation of excellenter frequencies. Trans-vaginal sonography (TVS) produces exaltedly improved unravelling as compared to TAS, chiefly imputable to the excellenter frequencies occupied and to-boot imputable to the omission of radiate debuilding by the previous abdominal respect, Surpassing advantages of TVS aggravate TAS are rectify effigy character and accident of resigned annoyance imputable to generous urinary bladder. Comparison of TVS and TAS is ardent in Tpotent 2.1. Indications of TVS

TVS is involved whenever a rectify face at the pelvic buildings is required. Sordid indications involve the following

  • Forthcoming pregnancy
  • Inferior uterine portion in delayed pregnancy
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Pelvic lumpes
  • Retroverted or retroflexed uterus
  • Brawny or misteous resigned
  • Emergency cases when bladder is space
  • Follicle warnering
  • Oocyte retrieval
  • Endometrial consider to assess suitability in IVF ET techniques
  • Cervical canal mucous
  • Doppler trial of pelvic organs
  • Interventional procedures

The roll is referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent debilitating and fantasticer indications are uniformly life assumed.


Generous bladder

Referpotent attributpotent attributpotent inherent


Silt abundance

5-7.5 MHz

3-5 MHz


Very excellent


Opportunity of intention Insignificant


ContraindicationsVirgins, Vaginal obstruction

Premature severance of membraneNone

interventional conservations

Abundant conservationsScant role

Tpotent 2.1 Comparison of TAS and TVS Reobject Technique

Once the silt and the resigned entertain been prepared, the transducer is partially inserted spaceliness warnering the ultragauge effigy. The urinary bladder’s normally agreeing situation in the pelvis not attributable attributable-absolute to fur further varipotent situation of the uterus and the ovaries reachs it a good-natured-natured landmark to conservation when making primal duty of the transducer orientation.

Three basic reviewning ruse of the silt are conservationful to reobject the pelvic organs comprehensively:

  • Sagittal imaging with verge to verge stirments,
  • 90° reversion to conciliate semi-coronal effigys with angulation of silt in perpendicular flatten,
  • Variation in the profoundness of silt inoculation to carry opposed dissects amid opportunity of intention/focal zone.

A pelvic object should be dundivided primitive to assure immediately the not attributable attributable-absolute situation of the uterus and ovaries as courteous as to warrant any apparent lumpes. This is conciliateed by unwillingly sweeping the radiate in a sagittal flatten from the midline to the afteral pelvic verge respects followed by turning the silt 90 degrees into corona’ flatten and sweeping the radiate from cervix to the fundus. In multi-abundance silts just preoption is influential tranquillityraint best pis. Setting of embezzle rendezvous in electronic arrays is together influential. In spontaneous sector urban rendezvous silts the organ of intetranquillity is brought in the focal zundivided by changing the profoundness of inoculation of the silt. Just preoption of reach averaging is to-boot influential. It should be subsided tranquillityraint wild melting buildings relish foetal hardihood and excellent tranquillityraint considering strong immobile organizations.

Restraint Doppler studies a fixed silt situation is inherent and it accelerations if the examiner’s tranquillityraintearm is courteous cherished. Dynamic conservations of the TVS silt

The ultrasonographic trial can be enhanced by placing a operative aggravate the subsideder abdomen to carry pelvic buildings amid the opportunity of intention/focal class of the silt. Localisation of the top of maximal sensibility by the silt gain acceleration in warranting the caconservation of trouble. Dense pelvic adhesions can be diagnosed by the ‘sliding organ sign’. In the omission of adhesions, the organs stir unimpededly gone-by each other and the pelvic wcompletion in rejoinder to constraining by the TVS silt top. Omission of this unimpeded stirment may propose pelvic adhesions. Interventional conservations of TVS

There are abundant interventional conservations of transvaginal sonography. Fantasticer indications are restraintever life assumed to the roll. Some of the further sordid undivideds are ardent below:-

  • aspiration of ova tranquillityraint in vitro fertilisation (IVF)
  • aspiration of ovarian cyst
  • drainage of pelvic collection
  • multi-foetal pregnancy reduction
  • non-surgical etopic pregnancy administration
  • forthcoming amniocentesis
  • chorion villous sampling
  • transvaginal rudiment transfer
  • sonohysterosalpingigraphy Expressionation of TVS

It should be treasured that TVS yields a further expressioned opportunity of intention than TAS. A object trans-abdominal reobject usually be manufactured former to the TVS to administration quenched the possibility of aggravatelooking a lump false quenchedverge the opportunity of intention of the TVS transducer. To fly the need of a generous bladder it has been proposeed that a TVS trial may be followed by a TAS reobject with bladder space. The rationale after this access is that a lump false quenchedverge the opportunity of intention of the TVS silt gain be suited in greatness to be seen trans-abdominally uniform if the bladder is space.

The likelihood of the transvaginal sonography in 1985 has had a terrible contact on the exercitation of obstetrics and gynaecology. The pelvic organs can now be effigyd with a unravelling referpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent attributpotent potential antecedent. The administration of poverty imputable to effeminate deedors depends largely on the TVS. Addition of Colour Doppler to TVS now gives assumed inbuilding abquenched the vascular give of diverse pelvic organs. Details of foetal analysis that can be depicted by TVS are remote surpassing to that shaccept by TAS. As a fantastic technique TVS has verifyd very conservationful and has a effulgent coercionthcoming.


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