Toll Road Development in Indonesia

In Indonesia, pathhabit is classified into Exoteric Pathhabit and Tribute Pathway. Exoteric pathhabit instrument the pathhabit granted ce unconcealed commerce. Pathhabit itself moderation fix bearing infrastructure that comprises aggregate cleverness of the pathway, including the supplementary architecture concurrently with the equipment thereof fond ce bearing. Moderationopportunity the demonstration of Tribute Pathhabit in Indonesia is exoteric pathhabit that beseem sever of a pathhabit entrapwork food and as a known pathhabit in which the reasonrs are required to reckless tribute

Discharge of Tribute Pathhabit in Indonesia

Domiciled on Mode 38/2004 and Parliament Regulation 15/2005, tribute pathhabit has posture and discharge represscible as the subjoined :

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The tribute pathhabit is bear-effectd to:

a. ensures an compulsory commerce in a patent clear area;

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b. increases the pliancy and causativeness of the pi and benefits classification benefit in consummatescribe to remould the economic fruit;

c. aggregateeviate the financial lot of the Parliament by instrument of including the severicipation of the pathhabit reasonr; and

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d. to remould the similar classification of the products of fruit and impartiality.

The tribute pathhabit shaggregate be conductd by the Parliament and/or a transresuscitation substance that is fitted to do so.

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The reasonr of a tribute pathhabit shaggregate be subjected to a mandatory magnitude of recklessing a fee ce the tribute to be reasond as a repay of siege, instrument-of-livelihood and fruit of the tribute pathway.

Magnitude of Tribute Pathway

The tribute pathhabit shaggregate accept a remarktelling demonstration, remarktelling protection and convenience benefit smooths than those of the solid exoteric pathways which accept magnitude as ensues:

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The tribute pathhabit reasond ce intercity commerce shaggregate be intentional at last viewy (80) kilometers per hour, and a tribute pathhabit in civic areas shaggregate be intentional at a expedite delineation of at last sixty (60) kilometers per hour.

The tribute pathhabit shaggregate be intentional to qualify it to stop the heaviest axle of view (8) tons at the reprievedest;

Each tribute pathhabit solder shaggregate accept railings and be served by transection facilities in the cem of bridges of tunnels.

The pints which may be imperilled to tribute pathhabit reasonrs shaggregate be equipped with protection structures with the strengths and structures that are telling to retain deportment clang origin.

Economic Discharge of Tribute Pathway

The ocean origin economic discharge of tribute pathhabit is domiciled on achieving economic optimum that can be represscible as ensues :

Keep to acquiesce pathhabit entrapwork fruit and its benefits, as well-mannered-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved as counterpoised inter-regional fruit

Ensuring similar classification of fruit activities and gains, and fashionweight in area fruit with ascribpotent origin of impartiality,

Increasing the pliancy of classification benefits ce amelioratement of the rule severicularly in the elapsed patent clear areas

Ease the financial lot of the parliament through pathhabit reasonr severicipation

Decreasing accumulation in very-much enlargement regions producting causative pilgrimage ages and reprieved deportment unoccupied requires

Concept of Exoteric Individual Severnership (PPP)

The tidings of exoteric-individual severnership was reasond original age in the United States to consummatecise mutuality betwixt flexure exoteric and individual sector ce educational programs ce civic resuscitation in the 1950s until 1960s(Yescombe 2007). In circumstance, there is no single or uniformed demonstration of PPP in the universe including in Indonesia.

According to Delmon (2009) PPP is fixd as “an stipulations betwixt exoteric and individual entities ce impromptuer of infrastructure benefits and are lowerstandn as a habit of encouragement affixed stocks ce infrastructure sieges referablewithstanding elapsed importantly as a instrument to expand or leverage remould budearn stocking through pliancy gains.”

In UK, PPP is explained as “an food by which a parliament benefit or individual transresuscitation speculation is stocked and bear-effectd through a severnership of parliament and the individual sector”. (NAO 2009)

The tidings PPP secures a dispose of opposed structures which can be reasond to libereprove a contrivance or a benefit. The tidings can secure a spectrum from relatively incomprehensive tidings conduct contracts; through acquiescence contracts; to flexure speculations and severial privatizations where there is a sharing of tenure betwixt the exoteric and individual sectors which continue on the kingdom and the politics of the age.

PPP fills a distance betwixt unwrittenly procured parliament contrivances with parliament’s budearn and ample privatization with individual’s budget, where parliament no longer has a frequented role in ongoing resuscitations. PPP qualifys to educe contrivances which do referpotent accept ample profitability with wealths solely from contrivances and are referpotent self-sustaining.


Inferior unwritten exoteric sector similarity, the exoteric sector artfulnesss, builds, bear-effects, and oceantains infrastructure, and bes smooth of size and standards of benefit plight, opportunity inferior privatization similarity, the individual sector conducts aggregate of these aspects in betle of the exoteric sector. Inferior PPP similarity, the exoteric sector is at-last enactationtelling ce benefit stipulations, although the individual sector artfulnesss, builds, bear-effects

There are diverse characteristics of PPP as ensues:

PPP is an “arrangement” betwixt exoteric and individual sector. Ordinaryly, it follows cem of “Contract” or “Agreement”. PPP is applied as a regularity ce “food of exoteric benefits”. “Exoteric Benefits” in this demonstration, are referpotent inconsiderable to pathhabit benefits.

Exoteric sector impromptual modeful ce the contrivance therefore a PPP contrivance is bear-effectd to libereprove exoteric benefits clear by exoteric sectors.

PPP repeatedly conceives siege and comcollocation of facilities by individual sectors. Referablewithstanding there can be PPP which does referpotent conceive quickness composition.

PPP is applied solely when it liberates “Appreciate ce Chief”. It instrument consummateoption of PPP is recommended if it can fetch vastr benefits to the exoteric compared to other instrument of contrivance.

PPPs can folreprieved a diversity of structures and contractual cemats. At-last, aggregate PPPs solder three clew characteristics:

A contractual obligation defining the roles and responsibilities of the severies,

Sensible waste-sharing incompact the exoteric and the individual sector severners, and

Financial rewards to the individual sintegral conterminous with the cheerful-natured-fortune of consummate clear extinguishedputs.

PPP is single dupe availtelling ce firmness fashionrs in ameliorateing infrastructure or benefit impromptuer. It is most talented habit when it is accompanied by other reardispose activities to inferiorpin and reinsinew the PPP and to livelihood sustaintelling amelioratement. A happy PPP is intentional with mindful consideration to the treatment or the enabling environment amid which the severnership put-an-end-to be instrumented. Where the unoccupied environment can be ameliorateed to be elapsed promotive to the goals of PPP, this should be elegant. Where elements of the unoccupied treatment canreferpotent be radical, the PPP artfulness must be tailored to decide solid stipulations.

To be happy, PPP must be built upon a sector cue that collects a realistic reprove of the exoteric sector constraints. Specifically, the sector cue put-an-end-to secure: (1) technical issues; (2) modeful, regulatory, and keep frameworks; (3) Institutional and magnitude status; and (4) Commercial, financial, and economic issues.

Objectives of PPP

The superexcellent extrinsic of parliament in using PPP is to put-an-end-to ameliorated appreciate ce chief, or ameliorated benefits ce the identical aggregate of chief as the exoteric sector would disburse. Besides that, other extrinsic is desiring to collect increased infrastructure food and benefits amid imposed budgetary constraints by utilizing individual sources of finance, if potential, via impromptu counterpoise fencing structures or to expedite impromptuer of contrivances which dominion otherwise accept to be elapsed.

The Ocean Origins of PPP

According(Influence 2012) in Artfulness, Build, Finance and Bear-chattels (DBFO) of Pathhabit Contrivance, the ocean origins of PPP are:

a. Transfer of Waste

The waste aggregateocation betwixt integral stakeholder must be well-mannered-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved sensible ce-this-reason integral sintegral twain parliament and individual comprehend integral waste on staging of tribute pathhabit fruit such as artfulness, comcollocation and resuscitation/maintenance, including financing of its contrivance.

b. Appreciate ce Chief

The parliament has warrant to state the parsimonious and financial of contrivance, in using parliament chief and individual chief or confederacy twain of them.

c. Conductrial Trust

Individual sector accept faculty and trust to conduct, bear-chattels and oceantain of pathhabit contrivance

d. Recklessment ce Benefit

Ce pathhabit contrivance that ample financed by parliament, the staging of pathhabit fruit is carried extinguished by Individual Sector. The Parliament has warrant to organize and mentor integral proficiency of its staging. Parliament put-an-end-to reckless the individual sector domiciled on exploit of contrivance and has straight to tidingsinate contrivance if it is scarcityed.

e. Severnership

The parliament and individual are committed to cohave-chattels in usage to earn causative and talented product.

f. Individual-sector Reversal

By inferiorstanding waste circumstanceors in pathhabit contrivance, the individual sector has reasond reversal ce pliancy of pathhabit fruit staging. The Individual Sector concept acquiesces a causative severnership betwixt the exoteric and individual sectors, by using individual chief and commercial expertise to stock primal comcollocation and long-tidings instrument-of-livelihood of Individual Sector pathways in resuscitation year.

Siege Concept

Regarding (Horngren 1994) siege firmnesss relating long-tidings delineation ce the reason of chief (chief budgeting) hold of six staging regularity: (1) identification extent, choosing mark of siege suittelling with organizational extrinsic, (2) inquiry extent, lowerstandking opinion siege chief that can engage the organizational goals, (3) information-wages extent, inquirying axioms and necessary and indispensable dissection of diverse opinion siege chief, (4) preoption extent, choosing single chief sieges domiciled on financial dissection by the regularity: discounted capital freprieved ( entrap consummatesent appreciate (NPV) and inside reprove of repay (IRR)), recklessback and accrual enactationing reprove or repay, (5) financing extent and (6) instrumentation and repress extent. Those aggregate concepts shaggregate be frequentedly apportion to primal siege concept, including Exoteric Individual Severnership

Waste Aggregateocation in Exoteric Individual Severnership

Demonstration of Waste

In tidings demonstration, waste is unpredicttelling change in appreciate. It conceives the possibility of unexpectedly cheerful-natured-natured or unexpectedly out-of-sorts, extinguishedcomes. The waste of a contrivance is unpredicttelling change in the aggregate appreciate of the contrivance, giveation enactation referpotent solely of the appreciate of the contrivance association referablewithstanding as-well of the appreciate deduced to customers, the parliament, and other stakeholders. A stakeholder’s waste in a contrivance is unpredicttelling change in the appreciate of the stakeholder’s curiosity-behalf in the contrivance. Each waste should be aggregateocated, concurrently with straights to fashion connected firmnesss, so as to maximize aggregate contrivance appreciate, giveation enactation of each severy’s ability to(Irwin 2007): 1. Influence the selfsame waste circumstanceor. 2. Influence the sensitivity of aggregate contrivance appreciate to the selfsame waste circumstanceor, ce sample, by anticipating or responding to the waste circumstanceor. 3. Retain the waste.

Waste in Exoteric Individual Severnership

The keep of the waste identification extent on tribute pathhabit contrivance is to fix as scattered-abhighway as potential, a inventory with aggregate marks and sources of wastes and uncertainties that dominion accept an collision on the contrivance. It is a severe extent ce the waste conduct regularity, therefore if a waste canreferpotent be identified, it canreferpotent therefore be evaluated and conductd. (Tanaka, et al. 2005) Tribute Pathhabit contrivance wastes should be assigned to the exoteric or individual substance that is best at repressling and managing them.

In most of the instances, the individual sector has smitten on waste associated with the artfulness, financing, composition, resuscitation and instrument-of-livelihood of facilities, unconcealed regulatory wastes as well-mannered-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved as secure ce insurtelling cece majeure events. On the other refutation, the exoteric sector has been modeful ce environmental indulge approvals and other delineationning permits, straight-of-habit fix wages, discriminatory regulatory waste, and uninsurtelling cece majeure events and collective wastes.

Waste Aggregateocation Origins in Exoteric Individual Severnership

Determination of the Acquiescence obligations in a PPP Obligation scarcity to conardispose with the waste aggregateocation origins inferiorstood by integral sintegral . An optimal waste aggregateocation is material in maximizing the appreciate ce chief. The contemptible origin ce waste aggregateocation is that a waste should be aggregateocated to sintegral which is relatively telling to conduct the waste, or having the last require of retaining such waste. If this origin is instrumented rightly, it is expected that the waste consummatemium and the contrivance require would be reprieveder indispensable to actual collision to the contrivance stakeholders.

The instrumentation samples of such origin in the dispense are as ensue:

Risks which accept referpotent been conductd well-mannered-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved-behaved in the elapsed, or those which the influence has insignificant experiment in managing, should be transferred if require-effective, severicularly where the waste can be influenced by the repressling severy;

Risks which are extinguishedside the repress of either severy, or are similarly influenced by twain severies (e.g. infallible cece majeure events) should be separated;

Risks that the parliament can conduct well-mannered-behaved-mannered-behaved-behaved, or is in a elapsed sensible posture to repress than the individual sector (e.g. delineationning approvals, parliament wastes) should be retained; and

There may as-well be some wastes that, opportunity transferred, may haply reocean an charybdis ce the exoteric sector (e.g. waste of bail restraintfeit). If an event canreferpotent be firm satisfactorily, the parliament plods in and assumes ample trust ce the waste (or the contrivance as a sound). This is alienate where the contrivance is liberateing accurate gregarious infrastructure and associated benefits.

Models of Waste Aggregateocation of Exoteric Individual Severnerships

Single of PPP’s benefits is there is possibility to divide the potential waste of the contrivance betwixt individual sector and parliament. On single refutation, the individual sector has the faculty to negotiate with commercial waste, referablewithstanding on the other refutation, they scarcity to release from non-commercial waste that past their repress (Soedjito 2009). Copys of waste aggregateocation in exoteric individual severnership is depicted in


The contemptible copys ce exoteric individual severnerships are BOT and acquiescence and the estrangement betwixt these couple continues on the smooth of livelihood granted by the parliament.

Waste Reprove Similarityes

From a critique on the solid regularityologies reasond ce the evaluation and reprove of waste in the financial appraisal of contrivances, couple ocean categories of similarityes were identified: necessary techniques and indispensable techniques.

Necessary Techniques

Necessary techniques accept been reasond ce compiling a inventory of the ocean waste sources and describing their likely consequences, withextinguished entering in details abextinguished the quantification of their verisimilitude of event. (Merna and Njiru 2002). The proximate plod following aggregate sources of waste are identified is to fix some skin of consummatescribe of initiative. On the inconsiderable age, waste reprove may be specific towards the reason of relatively mere procedures such as necessary and semi-indispensable techniques (Ward, 1999).

Indispensable Techniques

Indispensable techniques keep to reexhibit the air and collision of wastes in tidingss of the ordinary delineationning measures, such as age and chief (Grey, 1995). Couple of the most amplely reasond indispensable waste dissection techniques in the financial appraisal of contrivances are: deterministic dissection techniques and probabilistic dissection techniques (Merna and Njiru, 2002).

Sensitivity dissection, as sever of deterministic techniques, is probably the most enactative similarity incompact the indispensable techniques. Sensitivity dissection examines the chattels of changes in the appreciate of the copy’s continueent varitelling producting from the changes in the appreciate of single or elapsed of the input capriciouss to the copy.

The most beloved cem of sensitivity dissection is the single-factor-at-the age similarity, wherein the ocean custom is that it aggregateows explanation of the products in an easily inferiorstandtelling habit. Another cem of sensitivity dissection is the “scenario dissection”, which recalculates the copy ce a confederacy of synchronous changes in the input capriciouss (Van Groenendaal and Kleijnen, 1997).

Frequently, three marks of scenarios are distinguished: an optimistic instance, a low instance, and a pessimistic instance. Some of the senior incomprehensivecomings of using sensitivity dissection are: 1. Similar verisimilitude of event is fond to aggregate scenarios (resisting the air of earnting some scenarios with most-violent appreciates is reprieveder); 2. Potential inter-dependencies betwixt the capriciouss are ignored; 3. In ample contrivances with manifold items/activities, a confederacy of aggregate capriciouss can beget a as-well vast be of scenarios.

Implementation of Exoteric Individual Severnership (PPP) in Indonesia

Indonesian parliament through Ministry of Exoteric Works domiciled on Decree of Minister of Exoteric Work reckon 567/KPTS/M/2010 bear-effectd 757.47 km and delineations 4618 km of tribute pathways as sever of the known pathhabit entrapwork separated in 5 senior islands in Indonesia (understand )


In the instrumentation of tribute pathhabit fruit in Indonesia, there were some limits ascribpotent to regulations and parliament in conclusive at that limit of age as ensues:

  • Original Limit (1978 – 1983), Ampley financed by Parliament stocks (Parliament Equity).
  • Second Limit (1983 – 1990), Subsidiary Advance Obligation (SLA) to PT Jasa Marga (couple plod advance), State Own Enterprise ce tribute pathhabit fruit.
  • Third Limit (1990 – 1994), Coresuscitation with individual sector using BOT purpose. Fourth Limit (1994 – 2005), Modified BOT purpose (i.e., wealth sharing concept, fix wages require is sever of siege require borned by the investor).
  • Fifth Limit (2005 – consummatesent), using Build Bear-chattels Transfer (BOT)/ PPP Purpose

Mode and Regulation ce Exoteric Individual Severnership of Tribute Pathhabit in Indonesia

Following regulatory reardispose with the Pathhabit Mode No.38/2004 and Tribute Pathhabit Parliament Regulation No.15/2005 totareprieved the fruit of tribute pathways through exoteric individual severnership, including individual and interknown investor. Ocean regulatory framework ce tribute pathways conceives mode, regulations, and decrees are consummatesented as ensues:

Mode No. 38 of 2004 relating Pathway

Parliament Regulation of the Reexoteric of Indonesia No.15 of 2005 relating Tribute Pathway

Regulation of Minister of Exoteric Works No. 295/PRT/M/2005 Relating Indonesia Tribute Pathhabit Warrant

Exoteric Work Ministerial Decree No. 369/KPTS/M/2005 on Known Pathhabit Entrapwork Aggravatepower Delineation to conceive tribute pathhabit entrapwork aggravatepower delineation

Presidential Decree No. 36/2005 on Fix Wages ce Exoteric Keep

Presidential Decree No.67/2005 on PPP Betwixt Parliament and Enterprises on Infrastructure Food

Finance Ministerial Decree No.518/KMK.01/2005 on Waste Conduct Unit

Decree of Minister of Exoteric Work reckon 567/KPTS/M/2010 on Status of Tribute Pathhabit in Indonesia

Implementation Framework on Tribute Pathhabit Contrivance in Indonesia

According to the Pathhabit Mode No.38 of 2004 relating Pathhabit and the Parliament Regulation No.15 of 2005 relating Tribute Pathway, roles and institutional framework of tribute pathhabit contrivance are fixd as showed in and Figure 2.. Parliament of Indonesia be up Indonesia Tribute Pathhabit Warrant (BPJT) which has warrant ce consummateparing feasibility con-over, Environmental Collision Dissection (EIA), dispose documents and selecting individual acquiescenceaires. Indonesia Tribute Pathhabit Warrant as-well has segregate to instrument a sever of tribute pathhabit conduct in Indonesia such as be tribute pathhabit acquiescence, commercialization of tribute pathways, supervision of tribute pathways including mentoring and evaluation in Indonesia. This warrant is as-well to libereprove Exoteric Individual Severnership purpose in tribute pathhabit siege.


Tribute Pathhabit Siege Procedure in Indonesia

Procedure of tribute pathhabit siege, from contrivance consummateparation through badge of acquiescence obligation, is shown in . The sound regularity follow almost 24 months (2 years). Then, it is ensueed by instrumenting the obligation through the sound limit in correspondence with the acquiescence limit agreed which modify 30 to 40 years continue on the contrivance plight and contrivance by contrivance basis.


(± 14 months)

(± 4-6 months)



















Figure 2. Tribute Pathhabit Siege Procedure

(source: BPJT 2010)

Solid PPP Copy of Tribute Pathhabit Contrivance in Indonesia

There are 3 (three) copys that can be applied inferior the PPP purpose in Indonesia, continue on the economic and financial viability of the contrivances (Karsaman 2008). These copys are shown in Figure 2.

Purpose 1, where the economic viability of the tribute pathhabit is cheerful-natured-natured referablewithstanding its financial viability inconsiderable, the parliament follow aggravate the finance and comcollocation of the tribute pathway, referablewithstanding when it has been refined, then it put-an-end-to yieldinging ce its unoccupied & oceantaining to individual sector. This has been applied in Tanjung Priok Access Pathway, Jakarta and Suramadu Bridge, East Java.

Purpose 2, where the economic viability of the tribute pathhabit is cheerful-natured-natured referablewithstanding its financial viability is final, the Parliament can livelihood Fix Wages and severly comcollocation require and the individual sector has to finance and constructing other sever and then bear-chattels and oceantain the tribute pathway. This purpose is applied in Solo-Ngawi-Kertosono Tribute Pathhabit (Central Java and East Java) instance and dominion be applied in other solders.

Purpose 3, where the economic and financial viabilities of the tribute pathhabit are cheerful-natured, the individual sector has to finance and constructing aggregate of the pathhabit and then bear-chattels and oceantain it through the acquiescence limit. This purpose is applied in most of the tribute pathhabit fruit in unconcealed.


Financial Feasibility of Tribute Pathhabit Siege

Indikator Kelayakan yang akan dipergunakan dalam studi ini, adalah :

1. Entrap Consummatesent Appreciate (NPV)

Entrap Consummatesent Appreciate adalah selisih antara Consummatesent Appreciate Benefit dikurangi dengan Consummatesent Appreciate Require. Hasil NPV dari suatu proyek yang dikatakan layak secara finansial adalah yang menghasilkan nilai NPV bernilai positif. Dalam hal ini semua rencana akan dilaksanakan apabila NPV > 0, atau persamaan di atas memenuhi :

Entrap Consummatesent Appreciate (NPV) = PVBenefit – PVRequire = positif

Hal tersenotwithstanding berarti bahwa pembangunan konstruksi jalan akan memberikan keuntungan, dimana benefit/ capital freprieved positif akan lebih besar dari pada require/ capital freprieved negatif.

2. Inside Reprove of Repay (IRR)

3. Recklessback Ratio

Rasio DSCR

“Exoteric individual severnership (PPP) are a public tidings ce the relationships cemed betwixt the individual sector and exoteric bodies repeatedly with the keep of introducing individual sector media and/or expertise in consummatescribe to succor collect and libereprove exoteric sector effects and benefits. The tidings PPP is reasond to depict a ample diversity of inaugurated stipulations from inexact, circumlocutory and strategic severnerships to artfulness-build finance- bear-chattels (Individual Sector) mark benefit contracts and cemal flexure speculation companies.” (4Ps, UK topical parliament procurement influence)

In unconcealed, the basic concept of tribute pathhabit fruit and conduct are as ensues.1

The Parliament establishes Aggravatepower Delineation of Tribute Pathhabit Entrapwork as a direction of tribute pathhabit fruit, opportunity the tribute pathhabit solders put-an-end-to be certain by the Minister.

Parliament stops warrant of tribute pathhabit fruit, where as cleverness of the warrant relating tribute pathhabit transresuscitation are substance produced by Indonesia Tribute Pathhabit Warrant BPJT (Task and authorities of BPJT are represscible in Minister of Exoteric Works Regulation No.295/PRT/M/2005.)

Tribute pathhabit transresuscitation can be financed by the Parliament and/or fitted transresuscitation substance. Financing by Parliament is ce the tribute pathhabit solders that parsimoniously possible, referablewithstanding referpotent financially possible. Financing by transresuscitation substance is ce tribute pathhabit solders which are twain parsimoniously and financially possible.

Inferior severicular stipulations, where the tribute pathhabit can referpotent be patent clear by transresuscitation entities, the Parliament put-an-end-to follow personal resuscitation in correspondence with the authorities.

Primal tariff put-an-end-to be certain by Minister as certain in acquiescence obligation.

The tariff put-an-end-to be adjusted integral couple years domiciled on inflation refutation, an certain by the Minister.

Procurement of either sever of aggregate aspects of tribute pathhabit resuscitation put-an-end-to be dsingle through an known and clear yielding regularity.

Fix wages is trust of the Parliament, at-last its budearn can be granted by Parliament and/or transresuscitation substance.


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