Variable Length Hash Algorithm Using RC6
Hash_RC6 – Displaceing Elongation Hash Algorithm using RC6
- Kirti Aggarwal
- Dr. Harsh K. Verma
ABSTRACT
In this disquisition, we exhifragment a hash algorithm using RC6 that can breed hash treasure of displaceing elongation. Hash algorithms portray senior dissect in cryptographic warranty as these algorithms are representationd to bridle the completeness of the current intimation. It is relishly to breed hash algorithm using symmetric fill advertablehing. The main conception rearwards this is that if the symmetric fill algorithm is detain then the breedd hash discharge earn to-boot be detain [1]. As RC6 is detain opposite contrariant rectirectilinear and contrariantial assaults algorithm exhibited here earn to-boot be detain opposite these assault. The algorithm exhibited here can accept displaceing estimate of globulars to breed hash treasure. It can to-boot accept displaceing fill magnitude.
Keywords: Cryptography, Symmetric Encryption, Asymmetric Encryption, Facts Completeness, Evidence, Confidentiality, Non-Repudiation, Bearing Legislationrate, Hash, RC6
INTRODUCTION
Cryptography is the power of custody intimation detain mould others occasion transmiting instruction betwixt dissecticipants (Confidentiality). There are sundry cryptographic algorithms categorized as symmetric encryption algorithm and asymmetric encryption algorithm. Symmetric encryption algorithm is the single that representation similar shared clew from encryption and decryption, occasion asymmetric algorithm is the single that representation contrariant clews from encryption and decryption.
With the Confidentiality cryptography to-boot arrange other services advertableorious as facts completeness, evidence, non-repudiation, bearing legislationrate expectation. Facts Completeness is assuring that facts current is similar as sent by the element. Evidence is the power to certify that communicating dissecty is who that it claims to be. Non-Repudiation is the hinderance opposite the repudiation by entities compromised in the communication. Bearing Legislationrate is the hinderance opposite the unacknowledged representation of resources [2].
Figure 1. Fundamental of Cryptography
Hash Discharge
A cryptographic hash discharge is any algorithm or subroutine that maps catholic facts sets of displaceing elongation to meaner facts sets of a unwandering elongation. The treasures returned by a hash discharge are designated hash treasures, hash commands, hash blends, bridlesums or barely hashes.
Where h has unwandering elongation. An (redundant or deliberate) substitute to the facts earn (with very lofty chance) substitute the hash treasure.
Control a hash discharge to be considered detain, it must be computationally infeasible to invent has a predefined hash treasure and similarly it must be computationally infeasible to invent span intimations having similar hash treasure.
RC6
RC6 is a symmetric fill advertablehing established on RC5 and intentional by Rivest, Sydney, and Yin control RSA warranty [3]. Relish RC5, RC6 is a parameterized algorithm where the fill magnitude, the clew magnitude, and the estimate of globulars are displaceing; again, the higher period on the clew magnitude is 2040 fragments [4]. RC6 was intentional to converge the conditions of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)competition. RC6 personal has afill magnitudeof 128 fragments and supportsclew magnitudesof 128, 192 and 256 fragments, beside, relish RC5. RC6 can be viewed as interweaving span correspondent RC5 encryption processes. It representations an extra augmentation performance advertable exhifragment in RC5 in dispose to perform the succession subject on every fragment in a promise.
SHA-256
SHA-256 produces on view 32-fragment promises. The intimation to be hashed is pristine
- padded with its elongation in such a fashion that the upshot is a multiple of 512 fragments desire, and then
- parsed into 512-fragment intimation fills M^{(1)};M^{(2)}; : : :;M^{(N)}.
The intimation fills are processed single at a interval: Arisening with a unwandering primal hash treasure H^{(0)}, sequentially esteem
Where C is the SHA-256 compression discharge and + media promise-wise mod 264 union. H^{(N)} is the hash of M [5].
SHA-512
SHA-512 is a incommensurate of SHA-256 which produces on view 64-fragment promises and fill magnitude of 1024 fragments. It representations contrariant displace totals and comprehensive constants, beside its passageure is incorrectly virtually point, differing singly in the estimate of globulars, which are 80 control SHA-512[15].
HASH FUNCTION
A cryptographic hash discharge is a unrythmical transformation that takes a intimation of absolute elongation and esteems a unwandering elongation treasure to-boot advertableorious as hash treasure, intimation methodise, hash command, hash blend, bridlesum, expectation.
Where H is Hash Discharge, M is displaceing elongation intimation; H is unwandering magnitude hash treasure. Creating hash discharge is polished by reiteration. Instead of using a hash discharge with displaceing-magnitude input, a discharge with unwandering magnitude input is engenderd and is representationd a requisite estimate of intervals. This unwandering magnitude input discharge is advertableorious as compression discharge. It compresses an n-fragment string to engender a m-fragment string where n is normally main than m. This machination is advertred to as an iterated cryptographic hash discharge [6]. These compression discharge sink into span categories: a discharge specially intentional control the hash discharge or a symmetric fill advertablehing [2].
Figure 2. Iterated Cryptographic hash Discharge
Characteristics of single fashion Hash Discharge:
- Consecrated M, it is quiet to esteem h.
- Consecrated h, it is arduous to esteem M such that.
- Consecrated M, it is arduous to invent another intimation, M’, such that
The total aim of single fashion hash discharge is to arrange a finger sculpture of M that is matchless. In some contact single fashionness is insufficient; we want an unional condition designated collision-resistance (It is arduous to invent span casual intimations, M and M’, such that [1]).
Figure 3. Basic Hash Algorithm at element and receiver
Hash Discharge takes intimation and an primal treasure as an input and yields the hash treasure. The hash treasure is observational to the intimation at a interval when the intimation is inconsequent or advertableorious to be reform. The receiver authenticates the intimation by generating the hash treasure with the similar act and collates it with the hash treasure transmit by the element. If twain the treasure matches then the current intimation is similar as it is transmit by the element incorrectly intimation has been tampered with.
RC6
RC6 [7] is a largely parameterized race of encryption algorithms. A rendering of RC6 is past deferentially unroving as RC6-w r bwhere the promise magnitude is wbits, encryption consists of a nonnegative estimate of globularsr, andbdenotes the elongation of the encryption clew in bytes. Since the AES dependence is targeted atw= 32 andr= 20, we shperfect representation RC6 as shorthand to advert to such renderings. When any other treasure ofworris prepared in the passage, the parameter treasures earn be unroving as RC6-w r. Of dissecticular association to the AES trial earn be the renderings of RC6 with 16-, 24-, and 32-byte clews [4].
Figure 4. RC6 Encryption
Control perfect incommensurates, RC6-w r boperates on units of indecentw-fragment promises using the coercionthcoming six basic performances.
integer union modulo
integer detachment modulo
bitwise exclusive-or of w-fragment promises
integer augmentation modulo
Rotate to the left by the total consecrated by the meanest expressive fragments of
Rotate A to the straight, similarly
correspondent assignment
Clew Expansion
Representation span enchantment constants:-
Where:-
…….(sordid of eventual logarithm)
……..()
is the queer integer rectilinear to .
INPUT
byte clew that is preloaded into promise accoutre
denotes the no of globulars.
OUTPUT
w-fragment globular clews .
ALGORITHM
- Control do
Encryption
Indecent w-fragment records A, B, C, D comprehobject the primal input clear-passage as polite as the output advertablehingpassage at the object of encryption. The pristine byte of clearpassage is placed in the meanest expressive byte of A; the ultimate byte of clearpassage is placed into the most expressive byte of D [6].
INPUT
Plainpassage stored in indecent w-fragment input records
Estimate r of globulars w-fragment globular clews
OUTPUT
Cipherpassage stored in
ALGORITHM
- C = C + S[2r + 3]
Decryption
Control decryption of advertablehing-passage carry these advertablehing passage into records A, B, C, D Algorithm representations integer detachment modulo 2w and straight succession on records control earnting clear passage.
INPUT
Cipherpassage stored in indecent w-fragment input records
Estimate r of globulars
w-fragment globular clews
OUTPUT
Plainpassage stored in
ALGORITHM
HASH FUNCTION USING RC6
RC6 is a representations 44 promises of clew representative making it past abstrportraiture to burst. RC6 parameterized advertablehing; the fill magnitude can be aged in a undesigning behavior to 256 fragments and further.RC6 has climax clew magnitude of 2040 fragments, making the selfsimilar hash discharge very accelerated.20 globulars using RC6 earn accept perfect these features which perform the hash past efficient and detain.
It is relishly to representation a symmetric fill advertablehing algorithm as a hash discharge. If the fill algorithm is detain, then the single-fashion hash discharge earn to-boot be detain. Single practice is to encrypt the intimation with the algorithm in CBC legislation, a unwandering clew and an primal vector (IV), the ultimate advertablehing passage fill is the hash treasure. Another past rectify practice representations the intimation fill as the clew, the anterior hash treasure as the output. Here we earn representation prevent practice.
Algorithm exhibited here has displaceing parameters i.e. contrariant parameter treasure can be enslaved according to the want. Fill magnitude (b), Estimate of globulars (r), elongation of hash treasure (l) are the contrariant displaceing parameters that are the inputs of the algorithm. The elongation of hash treasure (l) should be multiple of 256.
Pristine of perfect padding is manufactured. Intimation is padded with zeros in a fashion such that the padded intimation elongation is multiple of the fill magnitude (b).
Then primal vector is wanted to breed the hash treasure. Primal Vector is a piece of facts is wanted to arise give an algorithm, and is advertable latent. There are span primal vectors in this algorithm which are representationd to breed primal hash treasure.
To breed the primal hash treasure league of v (magnitude of hash treasure separated by 256) 256 fragments treasures congenial as follows:
Following generating primal hash treasure from primal vectors the intimation (M) is separated into estimate of smperfect chunks (n). The magnitude of intimation chunks should be correspondent to fill magnitude b, following that RC6 clew breed is applied on each intimation fill to breed clews that earn be representationd to encrypt the anterior hash treasure to breed contiguous hash treasure. Primal 256 fragments v hash treasures are encrypted via RC6 using RC6 clews breedd from pristine intimation fill (M_{1}). This is then encrypted again from the clews breedd from prevent intimation fill (M2) and so on until perfect the intimation fills (n) are representationd. At ultimate perfect the v developed hash treasures of elongation 256 fragment each are concatenated to breed the developed hash treasure of elongation l.
Estimate of globulars (r) is separated in to span dissects, 3r/4 globulars are representationd to breed the RC6 clews from the intimation fill and r/4 globulars are representationd to encrypt the anterior hash treasure to breed contiguous hash treasure. Figure 5 pretexts the act control hash treasure of magnitude 512 fragments.
Figure 5. Hash Treasure Breed using RC6
PSEUDO CODE
INPUT
Intimation M,
Estimate of globulars r,
Fill magnitude b,
Elongation of hash treasure l;
OUTPUT
Developed hash treasure h;
ALGORITHM
- Pad 0s (zeros) at the object of the intimation so the intimation elongation is multiple of b;
- Divide intimation into chunks of magnitude b;
- Repeat trudge 7 to 21
- Carry
- Repeat trudge 10 to 12
- Repeat trudge 13 to 16
- Repeat trudge 20
- Repeat trudge 22 to 33
- Carry
- Repeat trudge 26 to 30 control do
- Carry
- Concatenate to earn developed hash treasure h
PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS
This algorithm was implemented using java in NetBeans IDE 7.0.1. Coercionthcoming upshots were obtained on Intel(R) Core(TM) i3 CPU M 370 @ 2.40 GHz 2.39 GHz 32 fragment arrangement with 4 GB of RAM give Windows 7 Ultimate.
Algorithm exhibited in this disquisition is collated with SHA-256 and SHA-512 respectively. Similarity betwixt algorithm exhibited here and SHA are dsingle on the cause of throughput of the algorithms and interval to yield hash treasure control improves of contrariant magnitudes. To be past deferential the program is done ten intervals control each input improve and the mean of those upshots are reputed here.
Results in Figure 6 to Figure 9 and Table 1 control Hash using RC6 are obtained control r=64, b=512, l=256 and these upshots are collated with SHA-256 which has similar treasure control these parameters.
Figure 6. Throughput of RC6_HASH and SHA-256.
Figure 7. Bar Graph of Hash treasure breed interval of RC6_HASH and SHA-512
Figure 8. Line Graph of Hash breed interval of HASH_RC6 (256) and SHA-256
Figure 9. Attempt interval cautions caused by Hash_RC6
Improve Name |
Improve Magnitude (Kb) |
Hash_RC6 |
SHA-256 |
A.html |
94 |
261.4 |
365.4 |
B.ppt |
567 |
1671 |
3757.2 |
C.txt |
244 |
513.57 |
827.3 |
D.jpg |
827 |
2626.1 |
5992.1 |
E.flv |
7107 |
23308.6 |
45203.2 |
F.mp3 |
8218 |
26195.9 |
32090.8 |
G.doc |
255 |
757.2 |
1319.2 |
H.pdf |
229 |
640.9 |
1278.8 |
I.png |
217 |
641.8 |
1283.7 |
J.wmv |
25631 |
84558.5 |
110003 |
Table 1. Similarity of Hash_RC6 (256) & SHA-256 on the cause of Attempt Interval of contrariant symbol of Improves.
Figure 6 pretexts the throughput of RC6_HASH and SHA-256 the algorithms in KB/sec. Figure 7 pretexts the Bar Graph hash treasure breed interval (in millisec) of twain the algorithms control the improve of contrariant magnitudes (in KB).
Figure 8 pretexts the Line-Graph of attempt interval according to their improve magnitude control each improve using algorithms Hash_RC6 (256) and SHA-256. Line graph is past handy to precitation that Hash_RC6 (256) performs accelerateder than SHA-256. This Graph to-boot pretexts that control the improve of smperfect magnitude twain the algorithms performs almost similar i.e. there is advertable abundant of the contrariety beside when the improve magnitude increases Hash_RC6 (256) performs abundant rectify than the SHA-256.
Bar chart in Figure 9 pretexts the attempt interval cautions caused by Hash_RC6 in percentage in similarity with SHA-256 control contrariant improve magnitudes. It’s main than 30% control almost perfect the improve magnitudes and control some of the improve magnitudes its approx 50% that is main aggression. The mean percent attempt interval cautions by Hash_RC6 control hash treasure of 256 fragments aggravate SHA-256 is 40.26.
We collate the attempt interval of each algorithm on contrariant improve symbols relish passage improve, audio improve & video improves, control this meaning we principally representationd 10 improves and narrative their hash treasure breed interval in milliseconds control these algorithms. List of Input improves and their magnitude are consecrated in Table 1.
Results in Figure 10 to Figure 13 and Table 2 control Hash using RC6 are obtained control r=80,b=1024,l=512 and these upshots are collated with SHA-512 which has similar treasure control these parameters.
Figure 10. Throughput of RC6_HASH and SHA-512.
Figure 11. Bar Graph of Hash treasure breed interval of RC6_HASH and SHA-512
Figure 12. Line Graph of Hash Breed Interval of HASH_RC6 (512) and SHA-512
Figure 13. Attempt Interval cautions caused by Hash_RC6
Improve Name |
Improve Magnitude (Kb) |
Hash_RC6 (512) |
SHA-512 |
A.html |
94 |
240.1 |
278.9 |
B.ppt |
567 |
1577.3 |
2736.6 |
C.txt |
244 |
694.7 |
932.4 |
D.jpg |
827 |
2192.8 |
4075.6 |
E.flv |
7107 |
20341.2 |
29664.1 |
F.mp3 |
8218 |
22848.5 |
33323.4 |
G.doc |
255 |
598.3 |
1224.7 |
H.pdf |
229 |
480.1 |
1054.6 |
I.png |
217 |
546.1 |
705.2 |
J.wmv |
25631 |
78942.4 |
95852.9 |
Table 2. Similarity of Hash_RC6 (512) & SHA-512 on the cause of Attempt Interval of contrariant symbol of Improves.
Figure 10 pretexts the throughput of RC6_HASH and SHA-512 the algorithms in KB/sec. Figure 11 pretexts the Bar Graph of hash treasure breed interval (in millisec) of twain the algorithms control the improve of contrariant magnitudes (in KB).
Figure 12 pretexts the Line-Graph of attempt interval according to their improve magnitude control each improve using algorithms Hash_RC6 (512) and SHA-512. Line graph is past handy to precitation that Hash_RC6 (512) performs accelerateder than SHA-512. This Graph to-boot pretexts that the contrariety is advertable so abundant control improve of smperfect magnitude beside when it comes to improve of catholicr magnitude Hash_RC6 (512) is abundant rectify than the SHA-512.
Bar chart in Figure 13 pretexts the attempt interval cautions caused by Hash_RC6 (512) in percentage in similarity with SHA-512 control contrariant improve magnitudes. It’s main than 15% control almost perfect the improve magnitudes and control some of the improve magnitudes its approx 35% that is main aggression. The mean percent attempt interval cautions by Hash_RC6 control hash treasure of 512 fragments aggravate SHA-512 is 24.625.
We collate the attempt interval of each algorithm on contrariant improve symbols relish passage improve, audio improve & video improves, control this meaning we principally representationd 10 improves and narrative their hash treasure breed interval in milliseconds control these algorithms. List of Input improves and their magnitude are consecrated in Table 2.
CONCLUSION
In this learning disquisition a newlightlight algorithm control generating hash treasure is exhibited. This algorithm is breedd on a symmetric fill advertablehing advertableorious as RC6 and can breed hash treasure of contrariant magnitudes. The algorithm can to-boot produce on contrariant fill magnitude and contrariant estimate of globulars. The implementation of algorithm is dsingle using JAVA in NetBeans IDE 7.0.1. on Intel(R) Core(TM) i3 CPU M 370 @ 2.40 GHz 2.39 GHz 32 fragment arrangement with 4 GB of RAM give Windows 7 Ultimate.
Hash treasure breedd using algorithm exhibited here are detain opposite sundry assault becarepresentation when a hash algorithm is breedd using symmetric fill advertablehing it occupy the personalties of underlying advertablehing. The conception rearwards this is that if the symmetric fill algorithm is detain then the breedd hash discharge earn to-boot be detain [1].
Then the algorithm is collated with SHA-256 and SHA-512 control similar parameter and on the similar environment. The upshots of similarity determine that the algorithm exhifragment here has rectify throughput
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